Glomalin gene as molecular marker for functional diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil
- 228 Downloads
Among the ecological services provided by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), the process of soil aggregation is hypothesized to be partially mediated by glomalin, an alkaline-soluble glycoprotein released by AM fungi into soil during hyphal turnover and after the death of the fungus in the soil. The protein is characterized by abundant production and hydrophobic properties. Although glomalin has been identified in Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198 as a putative homolog of heat shock protein 60, the use of expressed fungal genes encoding glomalin as a marker for functional AMF diversity was never exploited. The present work describes the first attempt to identify the glomalin gene in several AMF species, verify its reliability as gene marker for the identification and discrimination of AMF, and test the possibility to detect its expression in soil. We designed a specific PCR primers set able to amplify many known lineages of AMF glomalin gene. We demonstrated its applicability to create a new reference glomalin sequence dataset for comparative sequence analysis. The designed primer set was successfully used to amplify glomalin transcript from soil cDNA template.
KeywordsGlomalin Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Gene marker Functional diversity Sequences dataset
FM, EL, and GW contributed to the conception and design of the study; FM, MM, EL, and KP organized the AMF spore data collection and performed the experiments. FM performed the bioinformatics analysis and wrote with EL the manuscript. ZPS supported all the scientific activities. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read and approved the submitted version.
The study was conducted as part of the InfoRevita project TANGO ID: 268600 financed by NCBiR and was supported by 1783-3/2018/FEKUTSTRAT Program awarded by MHCNR.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Barbi F, Bragalini C, Vallon L, Prudent E, Dubost A, Fraissinet-Tachet L, Marmeisse R, Luis P (2014) PCR primers to study the diversity of expressed fungal genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes in soils using high-throughput sequencing. PLoS One 9:e116264. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116264 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Beaudet D, Chen ECH, Mathieu S, Yildirir G, Ndikumana S, Dalpé Y, Séguin S, Farinelli L, Stajich JE, Corradi N (2018) Ultra-low input transcriptomics reveal the spore functional content and phylogenetic affiliations of poorly studied arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. DNA Res 25:217–227. https://doi.org/10.1093/dnares/dsx051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bedini S, Pellegrino E, Avio L, Pellegrini S, Bazzoffi P, Argese E, Giovannetti M (2009) Changes in soil aggregation and glomalin related soil protein content as affected by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1491–1496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Błaszkowski J, Kozłowska A, Niezgoda P, Goto BT, Dalpé Y (2018) A new genus, Oehlia with Oehlia diaphana comb.nov.and an emended description of Rhizoglomus vesiculiferum comb. nov.in the Glomeromycotina. Nova Hedwigia 107:501–518. https://doi.org/10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2018/0488 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Borriello R, Bianciotto V, Orgiazzi A, Lumini E, Bergero R (2014) Sequencing and comparison of the mitochondrial COI gene from isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi belonging to Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae families. Mol Phylogenet Evol 75:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chen EC, Mathieu S, Hoffrichter A, Sedzielewska-Toro K, Peart M, Pelin A, Ndikumana S, Ropars J, Dreissig S, Fuchs J, Brachmann A, Corradi N (2018b) Single nucleus sequencing reveals evidence of inter-nucleus recombination in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. eLife 7:e39813. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.39813 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gillespie AW, Farrell RE, Walley FL, Ross ARS, Leinweber P, Eckhardt KU, Regier TZ, Blyth RIR (2011) Glomalin-related soil protein contains non-mycorrhizal-related heat-stable proteins, lipids and humic materials. Soil Biol Biochem 43:766–777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Katoh K, Rozewicki J, Yamada KD (2017) MAFFT online service: multiple sequence alignment, interactive sequence choice and visualization. Brief. Bioinform. https://doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbx108
- Ronquist F, Teslenko M, van der Mark P, Ayres DL, Darling A, Höhna S, Larget B, Liu L, Suchard MA, Huelsenbeck JP (2012) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Syst Biol 61:539–542. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Smith SE, Read DJ (2008) Mycorrhizal symbiosis, 3rd edn. Academic PressGoogle Scholar
- Sun X, Chen W, Ivanov S, MacLean AM, Wight H, Ramaraj T, Mudge J, Harrison MJ, Fei Z (2018) Genome and evolution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Diversispora epigaea (formerly Glomus versiforme) and its bacterial endosymbionts. New Phytol 221:1556–1573. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang Q, Wang W, He X, Zhang W, Song K, Han S (2015) Role and variation of the amount and composition of glomalin in soil properties in farmland and adjacent plantations with reference to a primary forest in north-eastern China. PLoS One 10(10):e0139623. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139623 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Weber CF, Balasch MM, Gossage Z, Porras-Alfaro A, Kuske CR (2012) Soil fungal cellobiohydrolase I gene (cbhI) composition and expression in a loblolly pine plantation under conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:3950–3957. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.08018-11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar