Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 54, Issue 8, pp 977–984 | Cite as

Response of activity, abundance, and composition of anammox bacterial community to different fertilization in a paddy soil

  • San’an NieEmail author
  • Xiumei Lei
  • Lixia Zhao
  • Yi Wang
  • Fei Wang
  • Hu Li
  • Wenyan Yang
  • Shihe XingEmail author
Original Paper


The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) process plays a critical role in the loss of nitrogen (N) in paddy soils, yet the response of anammox to different fertilization is not well documented. In this study, three different fertilized (control, CK; soil treated with inorganic fertilizers, NPK; soil treated with inorganic fertilizer and involving the incorporation of straw, NPKS) paddy soils were selected to investigate the activity, functional gene abundance, diversity, and composition of anammox bacterial community using isotope-tracing technique, quantitative PCR assays, and Illumina sequencing. The anammox rate in the NPKS treatment was 2.4 nmol N g−1 soil h−1, significantly higher than that in CK and NPK treatments (1.7 and 1.8 nmol N g−1 soil h−1, respectively). Potential anammox contributed 6.2–7.8% to total N loss with the remainder being due to denitrification. Significant differences in the number of hydrazine synthase β-subunit (hzsB) gene were observed in three treatments with the highest value being observed in the NPK treatment. The anammox rate of per functional gene in the NPKS treatment (11.4 fmol day−1) was higher than that in CK and NPK treatments (8.3 and 7.0 fmol day−1, respectively). Three genera of anammox bacteria were identified: Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Anammoxoglobus, and Candidatus Scalindua, with Candidatus Brocadia being the dominant. Anammox bacteria diversity was significantly lower in the NPK than in CK and NPKS treatments as shown by Shannon, Simpson, Chao 1, and ACE indices (p < 0.05). The results showed that activity, abundance, and composition of anammox bacterial community depended on the type of fertilization.


Anammox bacteria Different fertilization Straw Activity High-throughput sequencing q-PCR 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (4170010194) and the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (2017J0101612).

Supplementary material

374_2018_1320_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.8 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 1848 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Lab of Soil Ecosystem Health and RegulationFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesXiamenChina
  3. 3.College of Resources and EnvironmentFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  4. 4.Soil and Fertilizer InstituteFujian Academy of Agricultural SciencesFuzhouChina

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