Advertisement

Relationship between soil profile accumulation and surface emission of N2O: effects of soil moisture and fertilizer nitrogen

  • Wennong Kuang
  • Xiaopeng Gao
  • Mario Tenuta
  • Dongwei Gui
  • Fanjiang Zeng
Original Paper

Abstract

A soil column experiment was conducted to examine the effects of fertilizer N source and depth of placement on soil profile N2O accumulation and surface emissions at 44% and 77% water-filled pore space (WFPS). The used N fertilizers were polymer-coated urea, stabilized urea with urease and nitrification inhibitors, and conventional granular urea. Conventional urea and stabilized urea were applied either uniformly at 0–65 cm or deeply at a 40- to 65-cm depth of 65 cm repacked soil columns, whereas polymer-coated urea was subsurface banded at a 10-cm depth to reflect fertilizer application practices at a field scale. Profile N2O concentrations at 5, 15, 30, and 60 cm and surface flux were monitored over 3 months. Compared to conventional urea, stabilized urea and polymer-coated urea generally reduced N2O accumulation in the column, but not cumulative emissions. Across fertilizer sources, compared with uniform addition, deep placement reduced column N2O accumulation at 44% but not at 77% WFPS. Deep placement also reduced emissions 56–71% than for uniform placement. Column N2O accumulation doubled at 77% than 44% WFPS, whereas cumulative emissions and applied N–based emission factors were lower at the former WFPS value. Cumulative N2O emissions increased exponentially with total accumulation at 44% but not 77% WFPS. Reduced N2O emissions at high WFPS were likely due to consumption and low diffusivity of the gas in the soil profile, rather than low production by denitrification. These results suggest fertilizer N leached down the profile is less prone to N2O loss while emission reductions by using more efficient fertilizers may be limited.

Keywords

Denitrification WFPS Deep placement Enhanced efficiency fertilizers N2O concentration Emission factor 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Nutrien Ltd. and Koch Fertilizer Ltd. for providing polymer-coated urea and stabilized urea used in this study. The assistance of Zhiwen Ma on gas sampling is greatly appreciated.

Funding information

This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31570002, 31870499), the China 1000 Talent Program (Y472171), and China Scholarship Council (201704910732).

References

  1. Akiyama H, Yan X, Yagi K (2010) Evaluation of effectiveness of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers as mitigation options for N2O and NO emissions from agricultural soils: meta-analysis. Glob Chang Biol 16:1837–1846.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02031.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asgedom H, Tenuta M, Flaten DN, Gao X, Kebreab E (2014) Nitrous oxide emissions from a clay soil receiving granular urea formulations and dairy manure. Agron J 106:732–744.  https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2013.0096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bateman EJ, Baggs EM (2005) Contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O emissions from soils at different water-filled pore space. Biol Fertil Soils 41:379–388.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-005-0858-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beauchamp EG (1997) Nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils. Can J Soil Sci 77:113–123.  https://doi.org/10.4141/S96-101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Behera SK, Panda RK (2009) Effect of fertilization and irrigation schedule on water and fertilizer solute transport for wheat crop in a sub-humid sub-tropical region. Agric Ecosyst Environ 130:141–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2008.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouwman AF, Boumans LJM, Batjes NH (2002) Emissions of N2O and NO from fertilized fields: summary of available measurement data. Glob Biogeochem Cyles 16:6–1–6–13.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GB001811 Google Scholar
  7. Brummell ME, Farrell RE, Siciliano SD (2012) Greenhouse gas soil production and surface fluxes at a high arctic polar oasis. Soil Biol Biochem 52:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.03.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carter MR (1993) Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Lewis Publ. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  9. Castle K, Arah JRM, Vinten AJA (1998) Denitrification in intact subsoil cores. Biol Fertil Soils 28:12–18.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740050457 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chilundo M, Joel A, Wesström I, Brito R, Messing I (2018) Influence of irrigation and fertilisation management on the seasonal distribution of water and nitrogen in a semi-arid loamy sandy soil. Agric Water Manag 199:120–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cook WP, Sanders DC (1991) Nitrogen application frequency for drip-irrigated tomatoes. Hortic Sci 26:250–252Google Scholar
  12. Davidson EA (1992) Sources of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following wetting of dry soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56:95–102.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1992.03615995005600010015x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deare FM, Ahmad N, Ferguson TU (1995) Downward movement of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in a flatland ultisol. Fert Res 42:175–184.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00750512 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Di H, Cameron KC, Podolyan A, Robinson A (2014) Effect of soil moisture status and a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide, on ammonia oxidizer and denitrifier growth and nitrous oxide emissions in a grassland soil. Soil Biol Biochem 73:59–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fanish SA, Muthukrishnan P (2013) Nutrient distribution under drip fertigation systems. World J Agri Sci 9:277–283.  https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wjas.2013.9.3.2941 Google Scholar
  16. Gao X, Asgedom H, Tenuta M, Flaten DN (2015) Enhanced efficiency urea sources and placement effects on nitrous oxide emissions. Agron J 107:265–277.  https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj14.0213 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gao X, Rajendran N, Tenuta M, Dunmola A, Burton DL (2014) Greenhouse gas accumulation in the soil profile is not always related to surface emissions in a prairie pothole agricultural landscape. Soil Sci Soc Am J 78:805–817.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2013.05.0157 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldberg SD, Knorr KH, Gebauer G (2008) N2O concentration and isotope signature along profiles provide deeper insight into the fate of N2O in soils. Isot Environ Health Stud 44:377–391.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10256010802507433 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Granli T, Bockman OC (1994) Nitrous oxide from agriculture. Nor J Agric Sci 12(Suppl):1–128Google Scholar
  20. Guardia G, Cangani MT, Andreu G, Sanz-Cobena A, García-Marco S, Álvarez JM, Recio-Huetos J, Vallejo A (2017) Effect of inhibitors and fertigation strategies on GHG emissions, NO fluxes and yield in irrigated maize. Field Crop Res 204:135–145.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2017.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Halvorson AD, Snyder CS, Blaylock AD, Del Grosso SJ (2014) Enhanced-efficiency nitrogen fertilizers: potential role in nitrous oxide emission mitigation. Agron J 106:715–722.  https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2013.0081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang T, Gao B, Hu XK, Lu X, Well R, Christie P, Bakken LR, Ju XT (2014) Ammonia-oxidation as an engine to generate nitrous oxide in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil. Sci Rep 4:3950.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep03950 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Laville P, Lehuger S, Loubet B, Chaumartin F, Cellier P (2011) Effect of management, climate and soil conditions on N2O and NO emissions from an arable crop rotation using high temporal resolution measurements. Agric For Meteorol 151:228–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu R, Hayden HL, Suter H, Hu H, Lam SK, He J, Mele PM, Chen D (2017) The effect of temperature and moisture on the source of N2O and contributions from ammonia oxidizers in an agricultural soil. Biol Fertil Soils 53:141–152.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-016-1167-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu X, Mosier AR, Halvorson AD, Zhang F (2006) The impact of nitrogen placement and tillage on NO, N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a clay loam soil. Plant Soil 280:177–188.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-005-2950-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Loveland PJ, Whalley WR (1991) Particle size analysis. In: Smith KA, Mullins CE (eds) Soil analysis: physical methods. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp 271–328Google Scholar
  28. Ma Z, Gao X, Tenuta M, Kuang W, Gui D, Zeng F (2018) Urea fertigation sources affect nitrous oxide emission from a drip-fertigated cotton field in northwestern China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 265:22–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2018.05.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marsden KA, Marín-Martínez AJ, Vallejo A, Hill PW, Jones DL, Chadwick DR (2016) The mobility of nitrification inhibitors under simulated ruminant urine deposition and rainfall: a comparison between DCD and DMPP. Biol Fertil Soils 52(4):491–503.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-016-1092-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nan W, Yue S, Li S, Huang H, Shen Y (2016) Characteristics of N2O production and transport within soil profiles subjected to different nitrogen application rates in China. Sci Total Environ 542:864–875.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pedersen AR (2011) HMR: flux estimation with static chamber data. R package version 0.3.1. [Online] Available: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/HMR/index.html. Accessed 10 Feb 2018
  32. Qin S, Ding K, Clough TJ, Hu C, Luo J (2017) Temporal in situ dynamics of N2O reductase activity as affected by nitrogen fertilization and implications for the N2O/(N2O + N2) product ratio and N2O mitigation. Biol Fertil Soils 53:723–727.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-017-1232-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ravishankara AR, Daniel JS, Portmann RW (2009) Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century. Science 326:123–125.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1176985 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Reth S, Graf W, Gefke O, Schilling R, Seidlitz HK, Munch JC (2008) Whole year-round observation of N2O profiles in soil: a lysimeter study. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 8:129–137.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11267-007-9165-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sanz-Cobena A, Abalos D, Meijide A, Sanchez-Martin L, Vallejo A (2016) Soil moisture determines the effectiveness of two urease inhibitors to decrease N2O emission. Mitig Adapt Strateg Gl 21:1131–1144.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-014-9548-5 Google Scholar
  36. SAS Institute (2011) SAS for Windows. Release 9.3. SAS Inst. Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
  37. Smith KA, Thomson PE, Clayton H, McTaggart IP, Conen F (1998) Effects of temperature, water content and nitrogen fertilisation on emissions of nitrous oxide by soils. Atmos Environ 32:3301–3309.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00492-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stark JM, Firestone MK (1995) Mechanisms for soil moisture effects on activity of nitrifying bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:218–221Google Scholar
  39. Tiedje J (1982) Denitrification. In: A.L. Page (Ed) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison. p.1011–1026Google Scholar
  40. Wang Q, Zhang L, Shen J, Du S, Han L, He J (2016) Nitrogen fertiliser-induced changes in N2O emissions are attributed more to ammonia-oxidising bacteria rather than archaea as revealed using 1-octyne and acetylene inhibitors in two arable soils. Biol Fertil Soils 52:1163–1171.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-016-1151-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang Y, Hu C, Ming H, Zhang Y, Li X, Dong W, Oenema O (2013) Concentration profiles of CH4, CO2 and N2O in soils of a wheat–maize rotation ecosystem in North China Plain, measured weekly over a whole year. Agric Ecosyst Environ 164:260–272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2012.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yao P, Li X, Liu J, Shen Y, Yue S, Li S (2018) The role of maize plants in regulating soil profile dynamics and surface emissions of nitrous oxide in a semiarid environment. Biol Fertil Soils 54:119–135.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-017-1243-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and GeographyChinese Academy of SciencesUrumqiChina
  2. 2.Cele National Station of Observation and Research for Desert-Grassland Ecosystem, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and GeographyChinese Academy of SciencesCeleChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and GeographyChinese Academy of SciencesUrumqiChina
  4. 4.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations