Graphs and Combinatorics

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 767–778

# On Upper Total Domination Versus Upper Domination in Graphs

• Enqiang Zhu
• Chanjuan Liu
• Fei Deng
• Yongsheng Rao
Original Paper

## Abstract

A total dominating set of a graph G is a dominating set S of G such that the subgraph induced by S contains no isolated vertex, where a dominating set of G is a set of vertices of G such that each vertex in $$V(G){\setminus } S$$ has a neighbor in S. A (total) dominating set S is said to be minimal if $$S{\setminus } \{v\}$$ is not a (total) dominating set for every $$v\in S$$. The upper total domination number $$\varGamma _t(G)$$ and the upper domination number $$\varGamma (G)$$ are the maximum cardinalities of a minimal total dominating set and a minimal dominating set of G, respectively. For every graph G without isolated vertices, it is known that $$\varGamma _t(G)\le 2\varGamma (G)$$. The case in which $$\frac{\varGamma _t(G)}{\varGamma (G)}=2$$ has been studied in Cyman et al. (Graphs Comb 34:261–276, 2018), which focused on the characterization of the connected cubic graphs and proposed one problem to be solved and two questions to be answered in terms of the value of $$\frac{\varGamma _t(G)}{\varGamma (G)}$$. In this paper, we solve this problem, i.e., the characterization of the subcubic graphs G that satisfy $$\frac{\varGamma _t(G)}{\varGamma (G)}=2$$, by constructing a class of subcubic graphs, which we call triangle-trees. Moreover, we show that the answers to the two questions are negative by constructing connected cubic graphs G that satisfy $$\frac{\varGamma _t(G)}{\varGamma (G)}>\frac{3}{2}$$ and a class of regular non-complete graphs G that satisfy $$\frac{\varGamma _t(G)}{\varGamma (G)}=2$$.

## Keywords

Upper domination number Upper total domination number Subcubic graphs

## Notes

### Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61872101, 61672051, 61702075), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant (2017M611223).

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© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

## Authors and Affiliations

• Enqiang Zhu
• 1
• Chanjuan Liu
• 2
• Fei Deng
• 3
• Yongsheng Rao
• 1
1. 1.Institute of Computing Science and TechnologyGuangzhou UniversityGuangzhouChina
2. 2.School of Computer Science and TechnologyDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina
3. 3.College of Network SecurityChengdu University of TechnologyChengduChina