Focused augmented mirror based on human visual perception


A mirror is used in various aspects of daily life; thus, most people can use a mirror-metaphor augmented reality (AR) system naturally, without wearing a head-mounted display or AR glasses. An augmented mirror, one of the mirror metaphor AR display, is considered a more appropriate system than video-based virtual mirror display for personalized and immersive interaction in AR because it can show a combined scene in which a rendered virtual world is superimposed on the reflected real world based the viewpoint of a user. In this paper, we propose a focused augmented mirror that implements both viewpoint and depth-of-field matchings. In particular, we design a focused augmented mirror by concentrating on how the depth-of-field influences human visual perception in the augmented mirror system. To compare the differences between the theoretical and practical results, we perform two types of experiments; calculating the focus measure of the combined image photographed at user’s viewpoint and evaluating user experience with randomly selected non-expert people. In addition, we suggest an efficient user workspace that is limited by the tracker’s geometric configuration and the target object’s depth of field. Finally, we describe the physical limitation of our system and propose its solution as a future work.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15


  1. 1.

    The rendered 3D dragon model is available on a free 3D model download site (


  1. 1.

    The stanford 3d scanning repository. (1996)

  2. 2.

    Bimber, O., Fruhlich, B., Scnmalstieg, D., Encarnacao, L.M.: The virtual showcase. Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 48–55 (2001)

  3. 3.

    Brenner, J.F., Dew, B.S., Horton, J.B., King, T., Neurath, P.W., Selles, W.D.: An automated microscope for cytologic research a preliminary evaluation. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24(1), 100–111 (1976)

  4. 4.

    Campbell, F.: The depth of field of the human eye. Int. J. Opt. 11(4), 157–164 (1957)

  5. 5.

    Combès, B., Hennessy, R., Waddington, J., Roberts, N., Prima, S.: Automatic symmetry plane estimation of bilateral objects in point clouds. In: IEEE Converence on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1–8 (2008)

  6. 6.

    Curless, B., Levoy, M.: A volumetric method for building complex models from range images. In: SIGGRAPH ’96 Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 303–312 (1996)

  7. 7.

    Eggert, D.W., Lorusso, A., Fisher, R.B.: Estimating 3-d rigid body transformations: a comparison of four major algorithms. Mach. Vis. Appl. 9(5), 272–290 (1997)

  8. 8.

    Eskicioglu, A.M., Fisher, P.S.: Image quality measures and their performance. IEEE Trans. Commun. 43(12), 2959–2965 (1995)

  9. 9.

    Hartley, R.I., Zisserman, A.: Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2004)

  10. 10.

    Huang, W., Jing, Z.: Evalueation of focus measures in multi-focus image fusion. Pattern Recogn. Lett. 28(4), 493–600 (2007)

  11. 11.

    Jang, J.S., Choi, S.H., Jung, G.S., Jung, S.K.: Depth-of-field analysis for focused augmented mirror. In: Proceedings of the Computer Graphics International 2015 (2015)

  12. 12.

    Jang, J.S., Lee, T.H., Jung, G.S., Jung, S.K.: Two-phase calibration for a mirror metaphor augmented reality system. Proc. IEEE 102(2), 196–203 (2014)

  13. 13.

    Krishnamurthy, V., Levoy, M.: Fitting smooth sourfces to dense polygon meshes. In: SIGGRAPH ’96 Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 313–324 (1996)

  14. 14.

    Lueder, E.: 3D Displays, 1st edn. Wiley, New York (2012)

  15. 15.

    Marcos, S., Moreno, E., Navarro, R.: The depth-of-field of the human eye from objective and subjective measurements. Vis. Res. 39(12), 2039–2049 (1999)

  16. 16.

    Marcos, S., Moreno, E., Navarro, R.: The depth-of-field of the humna eye from objective and subjective measurements. Vis. Res. 39(12), 2039–2049 (1999)

  17. 17.

    Melzer, J.E., Moffitt, K.: Head Mounted Displays: Designing for the User, 1st edn. McGray-Hill, New York (1997)

  18. 18.

    Microsoft Research Redmond. Holoflector. (2012)

  19. 19.

    Mir, H., Xu, P., van Beek, P.: An extensive empirical evaluation of focus measures for digital photography. In: Proceedings of Society of Photographic Instumentation Engineers: Digital Photography X, vol. 9023 (2014)

  20. 20.

    ModiFace Inc. ModiFace mirror. (2011)

  21. 21.

    Nayar, S.K., Nakagawa, Y.: Shape from focus. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 16(8), 824–831 (1994)

  22. 22.

    Ng, K., Poo, A.N., Ang, M.H.: Practical issues in pixel-based autofocusing for machine vision. In: Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2791–2796 (2001)

  23. 23.

    Pachoulakis, I., Kapetanakis, K.: Augmented reality platforms for virtual fitting rooms. Int. J. Multimed. Appl. 4(4), 35–46 (2012)

  24. 24.

    Reichelt, S., Hussler, R., Ftterer, G., Leister, N.: Depth cues in human visual perception and their realization in 3d displays. In: Three-Dimensional Imageing, Visualization, and Display 2010 and Display Technologies and Applications for Defense, Security, and Avinics IV (2010)

  25. 25.

    Rolland, J.P., Hollowat, R.L., Fuchs, H.: A comparison of optical and video see-thourhg head-mounted displays. In: Proceedings of Society of Photographic Instumentation Engineers: Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies, vol. 2351, pp. 1321–1329 (1994)

  26. 26.

    Russ, J.C.: Image Processing Handbook, 4th edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (2002)

  27. 27.

    Saakes, D., Yeo, H.-S., Noh, S.-T., Han, G., Woo, W.: Mirror mirror: an on-body clothing design system. In: The 42nd International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (2015)

  28. 28.

    Tenebaum, J.M.: Accommodation in Computer Vision. PhD thesis, Stanford University (1970)

  29. 29.

    Ukita, N., Kaulen, D., Rocker, C.: Towards an automatic motion coaching system. In: International Conference on Physiological Computing System (2014)

  30. 30.

    Wang, B., Ciuffreda, H.J.: Depth-of-focus of the huma eye: theory and clinical implications. Surv. Ophthalmol. 51(1), 75–85 (2006)

  31. 31.

    Wang, L., Villamil, R., Samarasekera, S., Kumar, R.: Magic mirror: a virtual handbag shopping system. In: Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2012)

  32. 32.

    Witten, I.H., Moffat, A., Bell, T.C.: Managing Gigabytes: Compressing and Indexing Documents and Images, 2nd edn. Morgan Kaufman, Burlington (1999)

  33. 33.

    Yousefi, S., Rahman, M.T., Kehtarnavaz, N.: A new auto-focus sharpness function for digital and smart-phone cameras. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57(3), 1003–1009 (2011)

Download references


This research is supported by Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (MCST) and Korea Creative Content Agency (KOCCA) in the Culture Technology (CT) Research & Development Program (Immersive Game Contents CT Co-Research Center).

Author information

Correspondence to Soon Ki Jung.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (mp4 160007 KB)

Supplementary material 1 (mp4 160007 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jang, J.S., Choi, S.H., Jung, G.S. et al. Focused augmented mirror based on human visual perception. Vis Comput 33, 625–636 (2017).

Download citation


  • Augmented mirror
  • Augmented reality
  • Depth-of-field
  • Camera calibration