Example-driven animation synthesis


We introduce an easy and intuitive approach to create animations by assembling existing animations. Using our system, the user needs only to simply scribble regions of interest and select the example animations that he/she wants to apply. Our system will then synthesize a transformation for each triangle and solve an optimization problem to compute the new animation for this target mesh. Like playing a jigsaw puzzle game, even a novice can explore his/her creativity by using our system without learning complicated routines, but just using a few simple operations to achieve the goal.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.


  1. 1.

    Allen, B., Curless, B., Popović, Z.: Articulated body deformation from range scan data. ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 612–619 (2002)

  2. 2.

    Anguelov, D., Srinivasan, P., Koller, D., Thrun, S., Rodgers, J., Davis, J.: Scape: shape completion and animation of people. ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 408–416 (2005)

  3. 3.

    Der, K.G., Sumner, R.W., Popović, J.: Inverse kinematics for reduced deformable models. ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 1174–1179 (2006)

  4. 4.

    Guenter, B., Grimm, C., Wood, D., Malvar, H., Pighin, F.: Making faces. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 1998, pp. 55–66. ACM Press, New York (1998)

  5. 5.

    Guo, Z., Wong, K.C.: Skinning with deformable chunks. Comput. Graph. Forum 24(3), 373–381 (2005)

  6. 6.

    Herda, L., Fua, P., Plankers, R., Boulic, R., Thalmann, D.: Using skeleton-based tracking to increase the reliability of optical motion capture. Human Movement Sci. J. 20(3), 313–341 (2001)

  7. 7.

    Huang, J., Shi, X., Liu, X., Zhou, K., Wei, L.Y., Teng, S.H., Bao, H., Guo, B., Shum, H.Y.: Subspace gradient domain mesh deformation. ACM Trans. Graph. 25, 1126–1134 (2006)

  8. 8.

    Hyun, D.E., Yoon, S.H., Chang, J.W., Seong, J.K., Kim, M.S., Jüttler, B.: Sweep-based human deformation. Vis. Comput. 21(8–10), 542–550 (2005)

  9. 9.

    Igarashi, T., Moscovich, T., Hughes, J.F.: As-rigid-as-possible shape manipulation. ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 1134–1141 (2005)

  10. 10.

    Lee, T.Y., Huang, P.: Fast and institutive polyhedra morphing using smcc mesh merging scheme. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 9(1), 85–98 (2005)

  11. 11.

    Lee, T.Y., Lin, C.H., Wang, Y.S., Chen, T.G.: Animation key-frame extraction and simplification using deformation analysis. IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems Video Technol. 18(4), 478–486 (2008)

  12. 12.

    Lee, T.Y., Wang, Y.S., Chen, T.G.: Segmenting a deforming mesh into near-rigid components. Vis. Comput. 22(9), 729–739 (2006)

  13. 13.

    Lewis, J.P., Cordner, M., Fong, N.: Pose space deformation: a unified approach to shape interpolation and skeleton-driven deformation. In: SIGGRAPH ’00: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 165–172. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. (2000)

  14. 14.

    Lin, C.H., Lee, T.Y.: Metamorphosis of 3d polyhedral models using progressive connectivity transformations. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 11(1), 2–12 (2005)

  15. 15.

    Mohr, A., Gleicher, M.: Building efficient, accurate character skins from examples. ACM Trans. Graph. 22, 562–568 (2003)

  16. 16.

    Nealen, A., Sorkine, O., Alexa, M., Cohen-Or, D.: A sketch-based interface for detail-preserving mesh editing. ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 1142–1147 (2005)

  17. 17.

    Noh, J.Y., Neumann, U.: Expression cloning. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, pp. 277–288. ACM Press, New York (2001)

  18. 18.

    Park, S.I., Hodgins, J.K.: Capturing and animating skin deformation in human motion. ACM Trans. Graph. 25, 881–889 (2006)

  19. 19.

    Shoemake, K., Duff, T.: Matrix animation and polar decomposition. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface ’92, pp. 258–264. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA (1992)

  20. 20.

    Sorkine, O., Cohen-Or, D.: Least-squares meshes. In: Proceedings of Shape Modeling International, pp. 191–199. IEEE Computer Society Press, Washington, DC (2004)

  21. 21.

    Sorkine, O., Lipman, Y., Cohen-Or, D., Alexa, M., Rössl, C., Seidel, H.P.: Laplacian surface editing. In: Proceedings of the Eurographics/ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Geometry Processing, pp. 179–188. Eurographics Association, Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland (2004)

  22. 22.

    Sumner, R.W., Popović, J.: Deformation transfer for triangle meshes. ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 399–405 (2004)

  23. 23.

    Sumner, R.W., Zwicker, M., Gotsman, C., Popović, J.: Mesh-based inverse kinematics. ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 488–495 (2005)

  24. 24.

    von Funck, W., Theisel, H., Seidel, H.P.: Vector field based shape deformations. ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 1118–1125 (2006)

  25. 25.

    Weng, Y., Xu, W., Wu, Y., Zhou, K., Guo, B.: 2D shape deformation using nonlinear least squares optimization. Vis. Comput. 22(9), 653–660 (2006)

  26. 26.

    Yu, Y., Zhou, K., Xu, D., Shi, X., Bao, H., Guo, B., Shum, H.Y.: Mesh editing with poisson-based gradient field manipulation. ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 644–651 (2004)

  27. 27.

    Zhou, K., Huang, J., Snyder, J., Liu, X., Bao, H., Guo, B., Shum, H.Y.: Large mesh deformation using the volumetric graph laplacian. ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 496–503 (2005)

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Tong-Yee Lee.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Movie 1 10.5MB

Movie 1 10.5MB

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wang, Y., Lee, T. Example-driven animation synthesis. Visual Comput 24, 765–773 (2008).

Download citation


  • Animation synthesis
  • Warping
  • Intelligent scribbling