Advertisement

Geo-Marine Letters

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 205–221 | Cite as

Influence of climate on the late Pleistocene depositional history of the Gulf of Gemlik (Sea of Marmara)

  • Kürşad Kadir ErişEmail author
  • Asen Sabuncu
  • Luca Gasperini
  • Alina Polonia
  • Tayfun Kındap
Original
  • 83 Downloads

Abstract

The late Pleistocene climate-induced water level fluctuations in the Gulf of Gemlik have been first documented in detail by analyses of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles that are tied to radiocarbon-dated sediment cores. In this study, synthetic seismogram for seismic-to-core comparison has enabled a precise correlation between seismic units and core sediments, on which basis it was possible to establish an accurate chronology of the sedimentary successions deposited in the gulf. In the seismic profiles, pre-Holocene depositional units reflect distinctive hydrological and sedimentological processes due to the fluctuating water levels in response to high climate variability. Progressive drop in water level, due to a dry climate phase in the Last Glacial Maximum, is marked by a progradation of a lacustrine delta on the northern shelf of the gulf. Post-glacial warming prior to ca. 18 cal ka BP gave rise to meltwater-driven, high-energy currents on the shelf slopes, producing erosional gullies. The later transgressive freshwater stage of the Gemlik “Lake” began as a result of the meltwater discharge to the gulf basin, which is associated with deposition of the retrograded clinoforms on the shelf margin and infilling the gullies along the slopes. The final post-glacial water level rise in the gulf was mediated by a regressive phase, inferred by seaward-dipping clinoforms and deltaic deposition on the shelf margin. Such a climatic shift to a drier period may coincide with the Heinrich event 1. In the Gulf of Gemlik, transition from the Bølling/Allerød to Younger Dryas periods is recognized by deposition of small clinoform packages on the shelf margin, marking a decrease in water level due to low precipitations on the catchment area. The lake level decrease in the gulf during the YD was modulated by a stillstand, producing a – 65-m erosional terrace and a beach-berm elsewhere along the gulf shelves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the officers, crew, and scientific staffs of the R/V Urania cruises in 2005 and 2013 for their help in data collection from the Gulf of Gemlik. We also acknowledge Dursun Acar and Burak Yalamaz for their assistance on core analyses at the İTÜ-EMCOL laboratory. Discussions with Prof. Namık Çağatay were very instructive. Support for core analyses and student grants was provided by TÜBITAK (project number 115Y033). We also acknowledge to two anonymous reviewers for their constructive assessments on this article.

References

  1. Adatepe F, Demirel S, Alpar B (2002) Tectonic setting of the southern Marmara Sea region: based on seismic reflection data and gravity modelling. Mar Geol 190(1):383–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarez-Solas J, Montoya M, Ritz C, Ramstein G, Charbit S, Dumas C, Nisancioglu K, Dokken T, Ganopolski A (2011) Heinrich event 1: an example of dynamical ice-sheet reaction to oceanic changes. Clim Past 7:1297–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armijo R, Meyer B, Navarro S, King G, Barka A (2002) Asymmetric slip partitioning in the Sea of Marmara pull-apart: a clue to propagation processes of the North Anatolian fault? Terra Nova 14(2):80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armijo R, Pondard N, Meyer B, Uçarkuş G, Lépinay BM, Malavieille J, Çağatay N (2005) Submarine fault scarps in the sea of Marmara pull-apart (North Anatolian Fault): implications for seismic hazard in Istanbul. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 6:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aydoğdu A, Pinardi N, Özsoy E, Danabasoglu G, Gürses Ö, Karspeck A (2018) Circulation of the Turkish Straits System under interannual atmospheric forcing. Ocean Sci 14:999–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baltacı H, Kındap T, Ünal A (2017) The influence of atmospheric circulation types on regional patterns of precipitation in Marmara (NW Turkey). Theo App of Clim 127(3–4):563–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bar-Matthews M, Ayalon A, Kaufman A (1997) Late Quaternary paleoclimate in the Eastern Mediterranean region from stable isotope analysis of speleothems at Soreq Cave, Israel. Quat Res 47(2):155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barka A, KadinskyCade K (1988) Strike-slip fault geometry in Turkey and its influence on earthquake activity. Tectonics 7(3):663–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barka A, Kusçu I (1996) Extents of the North Anatolian Fault in the İzmit, Gemlik, and Bandirma bays. J Black Sea/Med Env 2(2):93–106Google Scholar
  10. Bartov Y, Stein M, Enzel Y, Agnon A, Reches Z (2002) Lake levels and sequence stratigraphy of lake Lisan, the late Pleistocene precursor of the dead sea. Quat Res 57:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beşiktepe ŞT, Sur HI, Özsoy E, Latif MA, Oǧuz T, Ünlüata Ü (1994) The circulation and hydrography of the Marmara Sea. Prog Oceanogr 34(4):285–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Büyükmeriç Y (2016) Postglacial floodings of the Marmara Sea: molluscs and sediments tell the story. Geo-Marine Lett 36(4):307–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Çağatay MN, Görür N, Polonia A, Demirbağ E, Sakınç M, Cormier MH, Eriş KK (2003) Sea-level changes and depositional environments in the Izmit Gulf, eastern Marmara Sea, during the late glacial–Holocene period. Mar Geol 202:159–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Çağatay MN, Eriş KK, Ryan WBF, Sancar Ü, Polonia A, Akçer S, Bard E (2009) Late Pleistocene–Holocene evolution of the northern shelf of the Sea of Marmara. Mar Geol 265:87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Çağatay MN, Öğretmen N, Damcı E, Stockhecke M, Sancar Ü, Eriş KK, Özeren S (2014) Lake level and climate records of the last 90ka from the Northern Basin of Lake Van, eastern Turkey. Quat Sci Rev 104:97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Çağatay MN, Wulf S, Sancar Ü, Özmaral A, Vidal L, Henry P, Gasperini L (2015) The tephra record from the Sea of Marmara for the last ca. 70 ka and its palaeoceanographic implications. Mar Geol 361:96–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Çukur D, Krastel S, Schmincke HU, Sumita M, Çağatay MN, Meydan AF, Stockhecke M (2014) Seismic stratigraphy of lake Van, eastern Turkey. Quat Sci Rev 104:63–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Damcı E, Krastel S, Öğretmen N, Çukur D, Ülgen UB, Erdem Z, Eriş KK (2012) Lake level changes of Lake Van over the last 400 ka: evidence from deltas in seismic reflection data and ICDP drilling. EGU Gen Assem Conf Abstr 14:626Google Scholar
  19. Diler MU (1986) Lake Iznik Project Engineering Hydrology Report. State Hyd Works (DSI), BursaGoogle Scholar
  20. Eriş KK, Ryan WBF, Çağatay MN, Sancar U, Lericolais G, Menot G, Bard E (2007) The timing and evolution of the post-glacial transgression across the Sea of Marmara shelf south of Istanbul. Mar Geol 243(1):57–76Google Scholar
  21. Eriş KK, Çağatay MN, Akçer S, Gasperini L, Mart Y (2011) Late glacial to Holocene sea-level changes in the Sea of Marmara: new evidence from high-resolution seismics and core studies. Geo-Mar Lett 31(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eriş KK, Çağatay MN, Beck C, de Lepinay BM, Corina C (2012) Late-Pleistocene to Holocene sedimentary fills of the Çınarcık Basin of the Sea of Marmara. Sediment Geol 281:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eriş KK (2013) Late Pleistocene–Holocene sedimentary records of climate and lake-level changes in Lake Hazar, eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Quat Int 302:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eriş KK, Ön SA, Çağatay MN, Ülgen UB, Ön ZB, Gürocak Z, Okan ÖÖ (2018) Late Pleistocene to Holocene Paleoenvironmental evolution of Lake Hazar, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Quat Int 486:4–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Filikci B, Eriş KK, Çağatay MN, Sabuncu A, Polonia A (2017) Late glacial to Holocene water level and climate changes in the Gulf of Gemlik, Sea of Marmara: evidence from multi-proxy data. Geo-Mar Lett 37(5):501–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fleitmann D, Cheng H, Badertscher S, Edwards RL, Mudelsee M, Göktürk OM, Kramers J (2009) Timing and climatic impact of Greenland interstadials recorded in stalagmites from northern Turkey. Geophys Res Lett 36(19):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gasperini L, Polonia A, Çağatay MN, Bortoluzzi G, Ferrante V (2011) Geological slip rates along the North Anatolian Fault in the Marmara region. Tectonics 30(6):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gerin R, Poulain P-M, Beşiktepe ŞT, Zanasca P (2013) On the surface circulation of the Marmara Sea as deduced from drifters. Turkish JEarth Sci 22:919–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Göktürk OM, Fleitmann D, Badertscher S, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Leuenberger M, Fankhauser A, Tüysüz O, Kramers J (2011) Climate on the southern Black Sea coast during the Holocene: implications from the Sofular Cave record. Quat Sci Rev 30:2433–2445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harrison SP, Yu G, Tarasov PE (1996) Late Quaternary lake-level record from northern Eurasia. Quat Res 45(2):138–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heroy DC, Anderson JB (2005) Ice-sheet extent of the Antarctic Peninsula region during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)—insights from glacial geomorphology. Geol Soc Am Bull 117(11–12):1497–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hiscott RN, Aksu AE, Mudie PJ, Marret F, Abrajano T, Kaminski MA, Yaşar D (2007) A gradual drowning of the southwestern Black Sea shelf: evidence for a progressive rather than abrupt Holocene reconnection with the eastern Mediterranean Sea through the Marmara Sea Gateway. Quat Int 167-168:19–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jones MD, Roberts CN, Leng MJ, Türkeş M (2007) A high-resolution late Holocene lake isotope record from Turkey and links to North Atlantic and monsoon climate. Geology 34(5):361–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kazancı N, Leroy S, Ileri Ö, Emre Ö, Kibar M, Öncel S (2004) Late Holocene erosion in NW Anatolia from sediments of Lake Manyas, Lake Ulubat and the southern shelf of the Marmara Sea, Turkey. Catena 57:277–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kuşçu İ, Okamura M, Matsuoka H, Yamamori K, Awata Y, Özalp S (2009) Recognition of active faults and stepover geometry in Gemlik Bay, Sea of Marmara, NW Turkey. Mar Geol 260(1–4):90–101Google Scholar
  36. Küçük M, Kâhya E, Cengiz TM, Karaca M (2009) North Atlantic oscillation influences on Turkish lake levels. Hydrocarb Process 23:893–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kwiecien O, Arz HW, Lamy F, Wulf S, Bahr A, Röhl U, Haug GH (2008) Estimated reservoir ages of the Black Sea since the last glacial. Radiocarbon 50(1):99–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kwiecien O, Arz HW, Lamy F, Plessen B, Bahr A, Haug GH (2009) North Atlantic control on precipitation pattern in the eastern Mediterranean/Black Sea region during the last glacial. Quat Res 71(3):375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Landmann G, Reimer A, Kempe S (1996) Climatically induced lake level changes at Lake Van, Turkey, during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 10(4):797–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Landmann G, Steinhauser G, Sterba JH, Kempe S, Bichler M (2011) Geochemical fingerprints by activation analysis of tephra layers in Lake Van sediments, Turkey. App Radiat Isotopes 69(7):929–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Le Pichon X, Şengör AMC, Demirbağ E, Rangin C, İmren C, Armijo R, Saatçılar R (2001) The active main Marmara fault. Earth Planet Sci Lett 192(4):595–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Litt T, Krastel S, Sturm M, Kipfer R, Örçen S, Heumann G, Niessen F (2009) ‘PALEOVAN’, international continental scientific drilling program (ICDP): site survey results and perspectives. Quat Sci Rev 28(15):1555–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McHugh CM, Gurung D, Giosan L, Ryan WB, Mart Y, Sancar U, Çağatay MN (2008) The last reconnection of the Marmara Sea (Turkey) to the World Ocean: a paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic perspective. Mar Geol 255(1–2):64–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Miebach A, Niestrath P, Roeser P, Litt T (2016) Impacts of climate and humans on the vegetation in northwestern Turkey: palynological insights from Lake Iznik since the Last Glacial. Clim Past 12(2):575–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mitchum JRM, Vail PR, Sangree JB (1977) Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, part 6: stratigraphic interpretation of seismic reflection patterns in depositional sequences. In: Payton, C.E. (Ed.), Seismic Stratigraphy-Applications to Hydrocarbon Exploration, vol. 26. Amer Ass of Petroleum Geolog Mem 117–133Google Scholar
  46. Mudie PJ, Rochon A, Aksu AE, Gillespie H (2002) Dinoflagellate cysts, freshwater algae and fungal spores as salinity indicators in Late Quaternary cores from Marmara and Black seas. Mar Geol 190(1–2):203–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mudie PJ, Marret F, Aksu AE, Hiscott RN, Gillespie H (2007) Palynological evidence for climatic change, anthropogenic activity and outflow of Black Sea water during late Pleistocene and Holocene: centennial- to decadal-scale records from the Black and Marmara seas. Quat Int 167:73–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nazik A, Meriç E, Avar N, Ünlü S, Esenli V, Gökasan E (2011) Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes Iznik and Sapanca, Turkey. Geo-Mar Lett 31:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nicoll K, Küçükuysal C (2013) Emerging multi-proxy records of Late Quaternary Palaeoclimate dynamics in Turkey and the surrounding region. Turk J Earth Sci 22(1):126–142Google Scholar
  50. Polonia A, Gasperini L, Amorosi A, Bonatti E, Bortoluzzi G, Çağatay N, Seeber L (2004) Holocene slip rate of the North Anatolian Fault beneath the Sea of Marmara. Earth Planet Sci Lett 227:411–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reimer PJ, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Blackwell PG, Ramsey CB, Grootes PM (2013) IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):1869–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roberts N, Reed JM, Leng MJ, Kuzucuoğlu C, Fontugne M, Bertaux J, Woldring H, Bottema S, Black S, Hunt E, Karabiyikoglu M (2001) The tempo of Holocene climatic change in the eastern Mediterranean region: new high resolution crater-lake sediment data from central Turkey. The Holocene 11:721–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roberts N, Jones MD, Benkaddour A, Eastwood WJ, Filippi ML, Frogley MR, Lamb HF, Leng MJ, Reed JM, Stein M, Stevens L, Valero-Garces B, Zanchetta G (2008) Stable isotope records of Late Quaternary climate and hydrology from Mediterranean lakes: the ISOMED synthesis. Quat Sci Rev 27:2426–2441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rodrigo-Gámiz M, Martínez-Ruiz F, Jiménez-Espejo FJ, Gallego-Torres D, Nieto-Moreno V, Romero O, Ariztegui D (2011) Impact of climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the last 20,000 years: oceanic and atmospheric responses. Quat.Sci.Rev 30:2018–2034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Roeser PA, Franz SO, Litt T, Ülgen UB, Hilgers A, Wulf S, Melles M (2012) Lithostratigraphic and geochronological framework for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last∼ 36 ka cal BP from a sediment record from Lake Iznik (NW Turkey). Quat Int 274:73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rohling EJ, Grant KM, Roberts AP, Larrasoan ̃a JC (2013) Paleoclimate variability in the Mediterranean and Red Sea regions during the last 500,000 years implications for hominin migrations. Curr Anthropol 54:183–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sagular EK, Yümün ZÜ, Meriç E (2018) New didemnid ascidian spicule records calibrated to the nannofossil data chronostratigraphically in the Quaternary marine deposits of Lake İznik (NW Turkey) and their paleoenvironmental interpretations. Quat Int 486:143–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sarıkaya MA, Zreda M, Çiner A (2009) Glaciations and Paleoclimate of Mount Erciyes, central Turkey, since the last glacial maximum, inferred from 36Cl cosmogenic dating and glacier modeling. Quat Sci Rev 28:2326–2341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Soulet G, Ménot G, Lericolais G, Bard E (2011) A revised calendar age for the last reconnection of the Black Sea to the global ocean. Quat Sci Rev 30:1019–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Şengör AMC, Görür N, Şaroğlu F (1985) Strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. Soc Eco Paleo and Min Spe Pub 37:227–264Google Scholar
  61. Taviani M, Angeletti L, Çağatay MN, Gasperini L, Polonia A, Wesselingh FP (2014) Sedimentary and faunal signatures of the post-glacial marine drowning of the Pontocaspian Gemlik “lake” (Sea of Marmara). Quat Int 345:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tzedakis PC, Roucoux KH, De Abreu L, Shackleton NJ (2004) The duration of forest stages in southern Europe and interglacial climate variability. Science 306:2231–2235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Uyguner B (1959) Preparatory studies on Lake Iznik, vol. 5. Pub of the Hydrobio Research Ins/Univ of Istanbul 105–114Google Scholar
  64. Ünal Y, Kındap T, Karaca M (2003) Redefining climate zones for Turkey using cluster analysis. Int J Clim 23:1045–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Vardar D, Öztürk K, Yaltırak C, Alpar B, Tur H (2014) Late Pleistocene–Holocene evolution of the southern Marmara shelf and sub-basins: middle strand of the North Anatolian fault, southern Marmara Sea, Turkey. Mar Geophys Res 35:69–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wellner JS, Lowe AL, Shipp SS, Anderson JB (2001) Distribution of glacial geomorphic features on the Antarctic continental shelf and correlation with substrate: implications for ice behavior. J Glaciol 47:397–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wellner JS, Heroy DC, Anderson JB (2006) The death mask of the Antarctic ice sheet: comparison of glacial geomorphic features across the continental shelf. Geomorphology 75:157–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wester R (1989) Wasserwirtschaftlicher Rahmenplan für das Izniksee-Gebiet/Türkei. PhD. In: Fachhochschule MainzGoogle Scholar
  69. Wick L, Lemcke G, Sturm M (2003) Evidence of Lateglacial and Holocene climatic change and human impact in eastern Anatolia: high-resolution pollen, charcoal, isotopic and geochemical records from the laminated sediments of Lake Van, Turkey. The Holocene 13:665–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yaltırak C, Alpar B (2002) Kinematics and evolution of the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault (Ganos Fault) between the Sea of Marmara and the Gulf of Saros. Mar Geol 190:351–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kürşad Kadir Eriş
    • 1
    Email author
  • Asen Sabuncu
    • 1
  • Luca Gasperini
    • 2
  • Alina Polonia
    • 2
  • Tayfun Kındap
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Mines, EMCOLİstanbul Technical UniversityİstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Istituto di Scienze Marine, CNR, U.O.S. BolognaBolognaItaly
  3. 3.İstanbul Technical University Eurasian Earth Science InstituteİstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations