Geo-Marine Letters

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 59–75 | Cite as

Biogeochemical processes at the Krasniy Yar seepage area (Lake Baikal) and a comparison with oceanic seeps

  • Giovanni AloisiEmail author
  • Tatiana V. Pogodaeva
  • Jeffrey Poort
  • Andrey V. Khabuev
  • Andrey V. Kazakov
  • Grigorii G. Akhmanov
  • Oleg M. Khlystov


The expulsion of sedimentary, methane-rich fluids to bottom waters is a widespread process in Lake Baikal (eastern Siberia), resulting in deep water cold seep systems comparable in size and frequency to those of oceanic, high-productivity continental margins. Little is known, however, about how biogeochemical processes in Baikal cold seeps compare with those of oceanic cold seeps. In this paper, we present new pore water chemistry data from the Krasniy Yar seepage area located on the slope near the Selenga river delta. We compare biogeochemical processes deduced from these pore water chemical profiles with processes prevalent at oceanic cold seeps of highly productive continental margins. This comparison allows to draw the following conclusions: (1) in sediments not affected by seepage the fresh water mass of Lake Baikal results in a very low relative importance of the nitrogenous and sulfidic geochemical zones compared to the ocean; (2) diagenetic processes involving silicate minerals are, however, similar in Lake Baikal and the ocean; (3) fluid advection rates in cold seep sediments are similar in Lake Baikal and ocean systems but (4) the deep methane flux of Baikal seeps is mitigated by reaction with O2, and possibly Mn(IV) and Fe(III) oxides, whereas in oceanic sediments the main methane-consuming process is the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate. Lake Baikal cold seep sediments are therefore nearly devoid of authigenic carbonate minerals and have a reduced capacity to decrease the deep methane flux.



The cruise on R/V Vereschagin took place in the framework of the Class@Baikal TTR expeditions, and was organised by LIN SB RAS (AAAA-A16-116122110064-7) and MSU. We thank the captain and its crew for their professional assistance. This is IPGP contribution no. 4005.

Funding information

This work was supported by a bilateral French-Russian funding: the PRC-CNRS programme (Shy@Baikal, no. 1072) and the RFBR research project no. 16-55-150005.


  1. Aloisi G, Drews M, Wallmann K, Bohrmann G (2004a) Fluid expulsion from the Dvurechenskii mud volcano (Black Sea) - part I. Fluid sources and relevance to Li, B, Sr, I and dissolved inorganic nitrogen cycles Earth and Planetary. Sci Lett 225:347–363Google Scholar
  2. Aloisi G, Pierre C, Rouchy J-M, Foucher JP, Woodside J, party Ms Methane and gas hydrate-related authigenic carbonate crusts in the mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In: 6th International Conference of Gas in Marine Sediments, St. Petersburg, 2000Google Scholar
  3. Aloisi G, Wallmann K, Haese RR, Saliege JF (2004b) Chemical, biological and hydrological controls on the C-14 content of cold seep carbonate crusts: numerical modeling and implications for convection at cold seeps. Chem Geol 213:359–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baram GI, Vereshchagin AL, Golobokova LP (1999) Application of high-efficiency micocolumn liquid chromatography with UV detection for determining anions in environmental objects. J Anal Chem 54:962–965Google Scholar
  5. Beal JB, House CH, Orphan VJ (2009) Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation. Science 325:184–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berner RA (1980) Early diagenesis: a theoretical approach. Princeton Series in Geochemistry. Princeton University Press,Google Scholar
  7. Berner EK, Berner RA (1996) Global environment: water, air, and geochemical cycles. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, p 376Google Scholar
  8. Boetius A et al (2000) A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane. Nature 407:623–626. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bohrmann G, Greinert J, Suess E, Torres M (1998) Authigenic carbonates from the Cascadia subduction zone and their relation to gas hydrate stability. Geology 26:647.<0647:acftcs>;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boudreau BP (1997) Diagenetic models and their implementation. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowles MW, Mogollón JM, Kasten S, Zabel M, Hinrichs K-U (2014) Global rates of marine sulfate reduction and implications for sub–sea-floor metabolic activities. Science 344:889–891. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Canfield DE, Thamdrup B (2009) Towards a consistent classification scheme for geochemical environments, or, why we wish the term ‘suboxic’ would go away. Geobiology 7:385–392. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Charlet L, Tornessat C (2005) Fe(II)-Na(I)-Ca(II) cation exchange on montmorillonite in chloride medium: evidence for preferential clay adsorption of chloride-metal ion pairs. Aquat Geochem 11:115–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chatterjee S, Dickens GR, Bhatnagar G, Chapman WG, Dugan B, Snyder GT, Hirasaki GJ (2011) Pore water sulfate, alkalinity, and carbon isotope profiles in shallow sediment above marine gas hydrate systems: a numerical modeling perspective. J Geophys Res 116:B09103. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crane K, Hecker V, Golubev V (1991) Hydrothermal vents in Lake Baikal. Nature 350:281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Egger M, Riedinger N, Mogollón JM, Jørgensen BB (2018) Global diffusive fluxes of methane in marine sediments. Nat Geosci 11:421–425. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Falkner KK, Measures CI, Herbelin SE, Edmond JM (1991) The major and minor element geochemistry of Lake Baikal Limnol. Oceanography 36:413–423Google Scholar
  18. Fomin GS (2000) Water. Control of chemical, bacteriological and radiation safety according to international standards, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  19. Golubev VA (1982) Geothermics of Baikal Nauka. NovosibirskGoogle Scholar
  20. Grachev MA, Vorobyova SS, Likhoshway YV, Goldberg EL, Ziborova GA, Levina OV, Khlystov OM (1998) A high-resolution diatom record of the paleoclimates of East Siberia for the last 2.5 My from Lake Baikal. Quat Sci Rev 17:1101–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Granin NG, Granina LZ (2002) Gas hydrates and gas venting in Lake Baikal. Geol Geofiz 43:629–637Google Scholar
  22. Granin NG, Makarov MM, Kucher KM, Gnatovsky RY (2010) Gas seeps in Lake Baikal—detection, distribution, and implications for water column mixing. Geo-Mar Lett 30:399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Granina LZ, Callender E, Lomonosov IS, Mats VD, Golobokova LP (2001) Anomalies in the composition of Baikal pore waters. Geol Geofiz 42:362–372Google Scholar
  24. Granina L, Müller B, Wehrli B (2004) Origin and dynamics of Fe and Mn sedimentary layers in Lake Baikal. Chem Geol 205:55–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haeckel M, Boudreau BP, Wallmann K (2007) Bubble-induced porewater mixing: a 3-D model for deep porewater irrigation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:5135–5154. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hanson RS, Hanson TE (1996) Methanotrophic bacteria. Microbiol Rev 60:439–471Google Scholar
  27. Haroon MF et al (2013) Anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to nitrate reduction in a novel archaeal lineage. Nature 500:567–570. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hovland M, Jensen S, Fichler C (2012) Methane and minor oil macro-seep systems—their complexity and environmental significance. Mar Geol 332:163–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kachukov V et al (1998) A continuous record of climate changes of the last 5 million years stored in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal. Geol Geofiz 39:139–156Google Scholar
  30. Kalmychkov GV, Pokrovsky BG, Hachikubo A, Khlystov OM (2017) Geochemical characteristics of methane from sediments of the underwater high Posolskaya Bank (Lake Baikal). Lithol Miner Resour 52:102–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Khabuev AV, Chensky DA, Solovieva MA, Belousov OV, Kononov EE, Khlystov OM (2016) Gas hydrate resources estimation by geophysical methods in “Krasny Yar” underwater gas seep of Lake Baikal Proceeding of the Siberian department of the Section of Earth Sciences of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences Geology. Explor Dev Mineral Deposits 54:67–74Google Scholar
  32. Khlystov O et al (2013) Gas hydrate of Lake Baikal: discovery and varieties. J Asian Earth Sci 62:162–166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Khlystov OM, Nishio S, Manakov AY, Sugiyama H, Khabuev AV, Belousov OV, Grachev MA (2014) The experience of mapping of Baikal subsurface gas hydrates and gas recovery. Russ Geol Geophys 55:1122–1129. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Krylov AA et al (2018) Authigenic rhodochrosite from a gas hydrate-bearing structure in Lake Baikal. Int J Earth Sci 107:2011–2022. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Krylov AA, Khlystov OM, Hachikubo A, Minami H, Nunokawa Y, Shoji H, Zemskaya TI, Naudts L, Pogodaeva TV, Kida M, Kalmychkov GV, Poort J (2010) Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in subsurface sediments of gas hydrate-bearing mud volcanoes, Lake Baikal: implications for methane and carbonate origin. Geo-Mar Lett 30:427–437. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Krylov AA et al (2008) Crystallization of authigenic carbonates in mud volcanoes at Lake Baikal. Geochem Int 46:985–995. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Logachev NA (2003) History and geodynamics of the Baikal rift. Russ Geol Geophys 44:373–383Google Scholar
  38. Lomakina AV, Mamaeva EV, Galachyants YP, Petrova DP, Pogodaeva TV, Shubenkova OV, Khabuev AV, Morozov IV, Zemskaya TI (2018) Diversity of archaea in bottom sediments of the discharge areas with oil- and gas-bearing fluids in Lake Baikal. Geomicrobiol J 35:50–63. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Luff R, Wallmann K (2003) Fluid flow, methane fluxes, carbonate precipitation and biogeochemical turnover in gas hydrate-bearing sediments at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin: numerical modeling and mass balances. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:3403–3421. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Luff R, Wallmann K, Aloisi G (2004) Numerical modeling of carbonate crust formation at cold vent sites: significance for fluid and methane budgets and chemosynthetic biological communities. Earth Planet Sci Lett 221:337–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Makarov MM, Muyakshin SI, Kucher KM, Aslamov IA, Gnatovsky RY, Granin NG (2016a) Bubbla gas escapes from the bottom of Lake Baikal, dependence of gas flare height on methane flux. Fundamentalnaya i prikladnaya gidrofizika 9:32–41Google Scholar
  42. Makarov MM, Muyakshin SI, Kucher KM, Aslamov IA, Gnatovsky RY, Granin NG (2016b) Bubble gas escapes from the bottom of Lake Baikal: observation with help of echosounder, estimation of methane flux and connection of this flux with bubble flare height. Fundamentalnaya i prikladnaya gidrofizika 9:32–41Google Scholar
  43. Matveeva TV, Mazurenko LL, Soloviev VA, Klerkx J, Kaulio VV, Prasolov EM (2003) Gas hydrate accumulation in the subsurface sediments of Lake Baikal (Eastern Siberia). Geo-Mar Lett 23:289–299. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Michalopoulos P, Aller RC (2004) Early diagenesis of biogenic silica in the Amazon delta: alteration, authigenic clay formation, and storage. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:1061–1085. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mizandrontsev IB (1975) About geochemistry of the pore solutions. In: Galazii GI, Parmuzin YP (eds) Dynamic of the Baikal depression. Nauka, Novosibirsk, pp 203–231Google Scholar
  46. Mizandrontsev IB (1981) Groundwater solutions of lakes. In: Nauka (ed) The history of large lakes in central subarctic zone. Novosibirsk, pp 80-100Google Scholar
  47. Moore VM, Hampton ES, Izmest’eva LR, Silow EA, Peshkova EV, Pavlov BK (2009) Climate change and the world’s “sacred sea”—Lake Baikal. Siberia Bio Sci 59:405–417Google Scholar
  48. Och LM, Müller B, Voegelin A, Ulrich A, Göttlicher J, Steiniger R, Mangold S, Vologina EG, Sturm M (2012) New insights into the formation and burial of Fe/Mn accumulations in Lake Baikal sediments. Chem Geol 330-331:244–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pimenov NV, Kalmychkov GV, Veryasov MB, Sigalevich PA, Zemskaya TI (2014) Microbial oxidation of methane in the sediments of central and southern Baikal. Microbiology 83:773–781. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pogodaeva TV, Lopatina IN, Khlystov OM, Egorov AV, Zemskaya TI (2017) Background composition of pore waters in Lake Baikal bottom sediments. J Great Lakes Res 43:1030–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pogodaeva TV, Zemskaya TI, Golobokova LP, Khlystov OM, Minami H, Sakagami H (2007) Chemical compostiion of pore waters of bottom sediments in different Baikal basins. Russ Geol Geophys 48:886–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Poort J, Klerkx J (2004) Absence of a regional surface thermal high in the Baikal Rift; new insights from detailed contouring of heat flow anomalies. Tectonophysics 383:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Prokopenko AA et al (2007) Paleoenvironmental proxy records from Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia, and a synthesis of Holocene climate change in the Lake Baikal watershed. Quat Res 68:2–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Qiu L, Williams DF, Gvorzdkov A, Karabanov E, Shimaraeva M (1993) Biogenic silica accumulation and paleoproductivity in the northern basin of Lake Baikal during the Holocene. Geology 21:25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Reitz A et al (2011) Sources of fluids and gases expelled at cold seeps offshore Georgia, eastern Black Sea. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:3250–3268. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sayles FL, Mangelsdorf PC (1977) The equilibration of clay minerals with seawater. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 41:951–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sayles FL, Mangelsdorf PC (1979) Cation-exchange characteristics of Amazon river suspended matter and its reaction with seawater. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43:767–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Scholz F, Hensen C, Schmidt M, Geersen J (2013) Submarine weathering of silicate minerals and the extent of pore water freshening at active continental margins. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 100:200–216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Solomon EA, Spivack AJ, Kastner M, Torres ME, Robertson G (2014) Gas hydrate distribution and carbon sequestration through coupled microbial methanogenesis and silicate weathering in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, offshore India. Mar Pet Geol 58:233–253. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Torres NT, Och LM, Hauser PC, Furrer G, Brandl H, Vologina E, Sturm M, Bürgmann H, Müller B (2014) Early diagenetic processes generate iron and manganese oxide layers in the sediments of Lake Baikal. Siberia Environ Sci Process Impacts 16:879–889. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vologina EG, Sturm M (2009) Types of Holocene deposits and regional pattern of sedimentation in Lake Baikal. Russ Geol Geophys 50:722–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. von Breymann MT, Collier RW, Suess E (1990) Magnesium adroption and ion exchange in marine sediments: a multiple component model. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:3295–3313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wallmann K, Aloisi G, Haeckel M, Obzhirov A, Pavlova G, Tishchenko P (2006a) Kinetics of organic matter degradation, microbial methane generation, and gas hydrate formation in anoxic marine sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:3905–3927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wallmann K et al (2008) Silicate weathering in anoxic marine sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 72:2895–2918. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wallmann K, Drews M, Aloisi G, Bohrmann G (2006b) Methane discharge into the Black Sea and the global ocean via fluid flow through submarine mud volcanoes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 248:545–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Weiss RF, Carmack EC, Koropalov VM (1991) Deep-water renewal and biological production in Lake Baikal. Nature 349:665–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yoshida T, Sekino T, Genkai-Kato M, Logacheva NP, Bondarenko NA, Kawabata Z, Khodzher TV, Melnik NG, Hino S, Nozaki K, Nishimura Y, Nagata T, Higashi M, Nakanishi M (2003) Seasonal dynamics of primary production in the pelagic zone of southern Lake Baikal. Limnology 4:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yoshioka T, Ueda S, Khodzher TV, Bashenkhaeva N, Korovyakova I, Sorokovikova L, Gorbunova L (2002) Distribution of dissolved organic carbon in Lake Baikal and its watershed. Limnology 3:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zeebe RE, Wolf-Gladrow D (2001) CO2 in seawater: equilibrium, kinetics, isotopes, vol 65. Elsevier Oceanographic Series, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  70. Zemskaya TI, Lomakina AV, Mamaeva EV, Zakharenko AS, Pogodaeva TV, Petrova DP, Galachyants YP (2015) Bacterial communities in sediments of Lake Baikal from areas with oil and discharge. Aquat Microb Ecol 76:95–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zemskaya TI et al (2010) Geochemical and microbiological characteristics of sediments near the Malenky mud volcano (Lake Baikal, Russia), with evidence of Archaea intermediate between the marine anaerobic methanotrophs ANME-2 and ANME-3. Geo-Mar Lett 30:411–425. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut de Physique du Globe de ParisSorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 7154 CNRSParisFrance
  2. 2.Limnological InstituteSiberian Branch of Russian Academy of ScienceIrkutskRussia
  3. 3.CNRS, Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris, ISTePSorbonne UniversitéParisFrance
  4. 4.UNESCO-MSU Centre for Marine Geology and Geophysics, Faculty of GeologyMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations