Novel metaheuristic classification approach in developing mathematical model-based solutions predicting failure in shallow footing

  • Hossein MoayediEmail author
  • Hoang Nguyen
  • Ahmad Safuan A. Rashid
Original Article


This study evaluated and compared several novel classification approaches to develop the most reliable stability model-based solution in the prediction of shallow footing’s allowable settlement. By applying the biogeography-based algorithm, this study presents an optimized metaheuristic classification approach with mathematical-based multi-layer perceptron neural network and fuzzy inference system to achieve a better assessment of the recognition of a complex failure phenomenon. By the contribution of a large number of finite element simulation, and considering seven key factors, the settlement of a shallow footing placed on a two-layered soil was measured as the target variable. Then, to change into the classification method, two overall situations of stability or failure were considered for the proposed soil layer. The ensemble of BBO–MLP and BBO–FIS are developed, and the results are evaluated by well-known accuracy indices. The results showed that employing BBO helps both MLP and FIS to have a better analysis. Besides, referring to the obtained total ranking scores of 6, 5, 11, and 8, respectively, for the MLP, FIS, BBO–MLP, and BBO–FIS, the BBO–MLP found to be the most accurate model, followed by BBO–FIS, MLP, and FIS.


Metaheuristic classification Evolutionary algorithms Hybrid Stability 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of this manuscript declaring of no conflict of interest to other published works.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossein Moayedi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hoang Nguyen
    • 3
  • Ahmad Safuan A. Rashid
    • 4
  1. 1.Department for Management of Science and Technology DevelopmentTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil EngineeringTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  3. 3.Institute of Research and DevelopmentDuy Tan UniversityDa NangVietnam
  4. 4.Centre of Tropical Geoengineering (Geotropik), School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia

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