Particle flow code method-based seepage behavior analysis and control effect evaluation for soil levee

  • Huaizhi SuEmail author
  • Hao Li
  • Linhai Zhang
  • Zhiping Wen
Original Article


Considering the material non-uniformity and time-varying mechanics performance in seepage development of soil levee, the particle flow code (PFC) method and the fast Lagrangian analysis of continua (FLAC) approach are combined to implement the numerical analysis and evaluation for seepage behavior and its control effect in soil levee engineering. Based on the coupling characteristics of particle and water in soil levee, a PFC-based numerical simulation method of seepage development is introduced. To improve the accuracy and efficiency of above method, the soil particle generation technology according to soil grading curve is presented. An approach, which refers to geotechnical centrifuge test and similarity principle, is developed to build the scale model of prototype levee. The calculation restriction of PFC method, which is integrated into FLAC tool, is broken. Lastly, the numerical simulation for seepage behavior of one actual levee engineering with seepage control measures is implemented by the proposed method. The seepage control mechanisms of selected measures are analyzed. The macroscopic and mesoscopic effects of selected measures on different levee foundations are evaluated. It is indicated that the seepage control effect can be described more finely with the average coordination number and the vertical effective stress which are obtained by the proposed numerical method.


Soil levee Seepage behavior Control effect evaluation Numerical simulation Particle flow code method 



This research has been partially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (SN: 51739003, 51579083, 51479054, 41323001), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (SN: 2018YFC0407101, 2016YFC0401601, 2017YFC0804607), Key R&D Program of Guangxi (SN: AB17195074), Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering (SN: 20165042112, 20145027612), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (SN: 2018B40514, 2015B25414).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huaizhi Su
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hao Li
    • 2
  • Linhai Zhang
    • 3
  • Zhiping Wen
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.National Engineering Research Center of Water Resources Efficient Utilization and Engineering SafetyNanjingChina
  4. 4.Department of Computer EngineeringNanjing Institute of TechnologyNanjingChina

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