Engineering with Computers

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 35–45 | Cite as

Designing a fuzzy cognitive map to evaluate drilling and blasting problems of the tunneling projects in Iran

  • E. BakhtavarEmail author
  • Y. Shirvand
Original Article


The study of drilling and blasting processes in excavation projects, especially in Iran, demonstrates various challenges and problems that eventually affect the technical and economic aspects of project performance. This paper introduces a methodology based on a computer-based fuzzy cognitive map approach to find and prioritize the problematic drilling and blasting factors in tunneling projects‏ in Iran. A particular cognitive map of the problem was designed by use of 34 problematic factors that selected by tunneling engineers in Iran. In the designed map, the weights of the problematic factors and their interactions were considered on the basis of the opinions of engineers. The designed map was finally solved by considering the causes and effects of the problematic factors. Results indicated that the most critical factors were respectively identified as the disregard for geomechanical changes, the lack of accurate drilling supervision and management, and the insufficient knowledge of blasting teams.


Drilling and blasting Fuzzy cognitive map Problematic factors Tunneling 



The authors would like to thank the experts of the tunneling companies helped us during our research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mining and Materials EngineeringUrmia University of TechnologyUrmiaIran

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