Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, 60:143 | Cite as

Particle image velocimetry measurements of a thermally convective supercritical fluid

  • Valentina ValoriEmail author
  • Gerrit E. Elsinga
  • Martin Rohde
  • Jerry Westerweel
  • Tim H. J. J. van der Hagen
Research Article

Abstract

The feasibility of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a thermally convective supercritical fluid was investigated. Hereto a Rayleigh–Bénard convection flow was studied at pressure and temperature above their critical values. The working fluid chosen was trifluoromethane because of its experimentally accessible critical point. The experiments were characterized by strong differences in the fluid density from the bottom to the top of the cell, where the maximum relative density difference was between 17 and 42%. These strong density changes required a careful selection of tracer particles and introduced optical distortions associated with strong refractive index changes. A preliminary background oriented schlieren (BOS) study confirmed that the tracer particles remained visible despite significant local blurring. BOS also allowed estimating the velocity error associated with optical distortions in the PIV measurements. Then, the instantaneous velocity and time-averaged velocity distributions were measured in the mid plane of the cubical cell. Main difficulties were due to blurring and optical distortions in the boundary layer and thermal plumes regions. An a posteriori estimation of the PIV measurement uncertainty was done with the statistical correlation method proposed by Wieneke (Measure Sci Technol 26:074002, 2015). It allowed to conclude that the velocity values were reliably measured in about 75% of the domain.

Graphic abstract

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the technicians who worked on the construction and the commissioning tests of the experimental facility: Ing. Dick de Haas, Ing. Peter van der Baan, and Ing. John Vlieland. This research is supported by the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, which is part of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), and which is partly funded by the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

References

  1. Adrian RJ, Westerweel J (2011) Particle image velocimetry. Cambridge aerospace series. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlers G, Grossmann S, Lohse D (2009) Heat transfer and large scale dynamics in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. Rev Mod Phys 81(2):503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Society of Heating R, Engineers AC (2017). https://www.ashrae.org. https://www.ashrae.org
  4. Ashkenazi S, Steinberg V (1999) High Rayleigh Number Turbulent Convection in a Gas near the Gas-Liquid Critical Point. Phys Rev Lett 83(18):3641–3644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avdeev MV, Konovalov AN, Bagratashvili VN, Popov VK, Tsypina SI, Sokolova M, Ke J, Poliakoff M (2004) The fibre optic reflectometer: a new and simple probe for refractive index and phase separation measurements in gases, liquids and supercritical fluids. Phys Chem Chem Phys 6:1258–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell IH, Wronski J, Quoilin S, Lemort V (2014) Pure and pseudo-pure fluid thermophysical property evaluation and the open-source thermophysical property library coolprop. Indus Eng Chem Res 53(6):2498–2508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boussinesq J (1903) Théorie analytique de la chaleur, vol 2. Gauthier-Villars, ParisGoogle Scholar
  8. Buongiorno J, MacDonald PE (2003) Supercritical water reactor (scwr) progress Report for the FY-03 Generation-iv R&D Activities for the Development of the SCWR in the U.S. Tech. rep., INEELGoogle Scholar
  9. Elsinga GE, Orlicz GC (2015) Particle imaging through planar shock waves and associated velocimetry errors. Exp Fluids 56:129.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-015-2004-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elsinga GE, van Oudheusden BW, Scarano F (2005) Evaluation of aero-optical distortion effects in PIV. Exp Fluids 39:246–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feher EG (1968) The supercritical thermodynamic power cycle. Energy Convers 8(2):85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. International Forum GIF (2017). https://www.gen-4.org/gif/jcms/c_9260/public
  13. Horn S, Shishkina O (2014) Rotating non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq Rayleigh–Bénard convection in water. Phys Fluids 26(5):055,111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Horn S, Shishkina O, Wagner C (2013) On non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects in three-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection in glycerol. J Fluid Mech 724:175–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang D, Wub Z, Sunden B, Li W (2016) A brief review on convection heat transfer of fluids at supercritical pressures in tubes and the recent progress. Appl Energy 162:494–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jackson J (2006) Studies of buoyancy-influenced turbulent flow and heat transfer in vertical passages. In: Proceedings of the annals of the assembly for international heat transfer conference 13.  https://doi.org/10.1615/IHTC13.p30.240
  17. Jackson J (2013) Fluid flow and convective heat transfer to fluids at supercritical pressure. Nucl Eng Design 264:24–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jiang P, Shi R, Xu Y, He S, Jackson J (2006) Experimental investigation of flow resistance and convection heat transfer to \(\text{ co }_{2}\) at supercritical pressures in a vertical porous tube. J Supercr Fluids 38(3):339–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Karellas S, Schuster A (2008) Supercritical fluid parameters in organic rankine cycle applications. Int J Thermodyn 11(3):101–108Google Scholar
  20. Kurganov VA, Kaptil’ny AG (1992) Velocity and enthalpy fields and eddy diffusivities in a heated supercritical fluid flow. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 5:465–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lemmon E, Huber M, McLinden M (2013) NIST reference database 23: reference fluid thermodynamic and transport properties-REFPROP, version 9.1. Standard Reference Data ProgramGoogle Scholar
  22. Licht J, Anderson M, Corradini M (2009) Characteristics in supercritical pressure water. J Heat Transfer 131:072502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mei R (1994) Flow due to an oscillating sphere and an expression for unsteady drag on the sphere at finite reynolds number. J Fluid Mech 270:133–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mei R (1996) Velocity fidelity of flow tracer particles. Exp Fluids 22:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Melling A (1997) Tracer particles and seeding for particle image velocimetry. Measure Sci Technol 8(12):1406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Murphy MJ, Adrian RJ (2010) PIV space-time resolution of flow behind blast waves. Exp Fluids 49(1):193–202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-010-0843-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Oka Y, Koshizuka SI (1993) Concept and design of a supercritical-pressure, direct-cycle light water reactor. Nucl Technol 103(3):295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pioro I (2013) Nuclear power as a basis for future electricity production in the world: generation III and IV reactors (Chapter 10). In: Mesquita A (ed) Current research in nuclear reactor technology in Brazil and Worldwide. IntechOpen.  https://doi.org/10.5772/56032 Google Scholar
  29. Pioro I, Kirillov P (2013) Current status of electricity generation in the world, vol Materials and processes for energy: communicating current research and technological developments. A. Méndez-VilasGoogle Scholar
  30. Pioro IL, Romney B (2016) Handbook of generation iv nuclear reactors. Woodhead publishing series in energy. Woodhead Publishing, SawstonGoogle Scholar
  31. Pioro IL, Khartabil HF, Duffey RB (2004) Heat transfer to supercritical fluids flowing in channels—empirical correlations (survey). Nucl Eng Design 230:69–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Raffel M, Willert C, Wereley S, Kompenhans J (2007) Particle image velocimetry, 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag, Berlin HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Richard H, Raffel M (2001) Principle and applications of the background oriented schlieren (BOS) method. Measure Sci Technol 12:1576–1585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schuster A, Karellas S, Aumann R (2010) Efficiency optimization potential in supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles. Energy 35:1033–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sciacchitano A, Wieneke B, Scarano F (2013) PIV uncertainty quantification by image matching. Measure Sci Technol 24:045302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Valori V (2018) Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a supercritical fluid: PIV and heat transfer study. PhD thesis, Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  37. Valori V, Elsinga G, Rohde M, Tummers M, Westerweel J, van der Hagen T (2017) Experimental velocity study of non-Boussinesq Rayleigh-Bénard convection. Phys Rev E 95(053):113Google Scholar
  38. Vukoslavčević P, Radulović I, Wallace J (2005) Testing of a hot- and cold-wire probe to measure simultaneously the speed and temperature in supercritical \({\text{CO}}_{2}\) flow. Exp Fluids 39(4):703–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wieneke B (2015) PIV uncertainty quantification from correlation statistics. Measure Sci Technol 26:074002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yoo JY (2013) The turbulent flows of supercritical fluids with heat transfer. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 45:495–525MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Radiation Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Applied SciencesDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Laboratory for Aero and Hydrodynamics, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  3. 3.DSM/IRAMIS/SPEC, CNRS UMR 3680, CEA, Univ. Paris-SaclayGif-sur-YvetteFrance

Personalised recommendations