Is remote live urologic surgery a reality? Evidences from a systematic review of the literature
Introduction and objectives
The possibility of performing remote-surgery has been the goal to achieve, since the early development of the first surgical robotic platforms. This systematic review aims to analyse the state of the art in the field and to provide an overview of the possible growth of this technology.
All English language publications on Telementoring and Telesurgery for minimally invasive urologic procedures were evaluated. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) statement to evaluate PubMed®, Scopus®, and Web of Science™ databases (up to June 2019).
Our electronic search identified a total of 124 papers in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Of these, 81 publications were identified for detailed review, which yielded 22 included in the present systematic review. Our results showed that remote surgery has been under-utilised until today, mostly due to the lack of appropriate telecommunication technologies.
Remote live surgery is a growing technology that is catalyzing incremental interest. Despite not being yet reliable today on a regular basis in its most advanced applications, thanks to the advent of novel data-transmission technologies, telepresence might become a critical educational methodology, highly impacting the global healthcare system
KeywordsLive surgery Telementoring Teleassistance Teletraining Telesurgery Telepresence Remote
DV: Manuscript writing, Protocol development. AT: Project development. JGR: Manuscript editing. AD: Manuscript editing. ZO: Manuscript editing. BKS: Manuscript editing. NM: Data collection. GF: Protocol development. GC: Data collection and management.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
- 2.Howick J, Chalmers I, Glasziou P, Greenhalgh T, Heneghan C, Liberati A, Moschetti I, Phillips B, Thornton H (2011) Explanation of the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) Levels of Evidence (Background Document). Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. https://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=5653. Accessed 5 Nov 2019
- 13.Challacombe B, Kandaswamy R, Dasgupta P, Mamode N (2005) Telementoring facilitates independent hand-assisted laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy. In: Transplantation proceedings. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
- 22.Hougen HY, Lobo JM, Corey T, Jones R, Rheuban K, Schenkman NS, Krupski TL (2016) Optimizing and validating the technical infrastructure of a novel tele-cystoscopy system. Int Neurourol J 22(7):397–404Google Scholar
- 26.Ciaramella S (2019) Health care orgaizations work to combat the doctor shortage. Chamber Business newsGoogle Scholar
- 29.Veneziano D, Minervini A, Beatty J, Fornara P, Gozen A, Greco F, Langenhuijsen JF, Lunelli L, Overgaauw D, Rassweiler J, Rocco B, Sanchez Salas R, Shariat S, Sweet RM, Simone G, Springer C, Tuccio A, Cleynenbreugel B, Weibl P, Cozzupoli P (2016) Construct, content and face validity of the Camera Handling Trainer (CHT): a new E-blus training task for 30° laparoscope navigation skills. World J Urol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-015-1657-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.Veneziano D, Ploumidis A, Proietti S, Tokas T, Kamphuis G, Tripepi G, Cleynenbreugel B, Gozen A, Breda A, Palou J, Sarica K, Liatsikos E, Ahmed K, Somani BK, on behalf of the European School of Urology training group (2018) Evolution and Uptake of the Endoscopic Stone Treatment Step 1 (EST-s1) protocol: establishment, validation and assessment in a collaboration by the European School of Urology and the Uro-Technology and Urolithiasis Sections. Eur Urol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2018.05.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.Somani BK, Van Cleynenbreugel B, Gozen A, Palou J, Barmoshe S, Biyani S, Gaya JM, Hellawell G, Pini G, Faba RO, Sanchez Salas R, Macek P, Skolarikos A, Wagner C, Eret V, Haensel S, Siena G, Schmidt M, Klitsch M, Vesely S, Ploumidis A, Proietti S, Kamphuis G, Tokas T, Geraghty R, Veneziano D (2018) The European Urology Residents Education Programme Hands-on Training Format: 4 years of hands-on training improvements from the European School of Urology. Eur Urol Focus. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2018.03.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Veneziano D, Ploumidis A, Proietti S, Tokas T, Kamphuis G, Tripepi G, Cleynenbreugel B, Gozen A, Breda A, Palou J, Sarica K, Liatsikos E, Ahmed K, Somani BK, ESU Training Group (2019) Validation of the endoscopic stone treatment step 1 (EST-s1): a novel EAU training and assessment tool for basic endoscopic stone treatment skills-a collaborative work by ESU, ESUT and EULIS. World J Urol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-019-02736-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar