Is remote live urologic surgery a reality? Evidences from a systematic review of the literature

  • Domenico VenezianoEmail author
  • A. Tafuri
  • J. Gomez Rivas
  • A. Dourado
  • Z. Okhunov
  • B. K. Somani
  • N. Marino
  • G. Fuchs
  • G. Cacciamani
  • ESUT-YAUWP Group
Topic Paper


Introduction and objectives

The possibility of performing remote-surgery has been the goal to achieve, since the early development of the first surgical robotic platforms. This systematic review aims to analyse the state of the art in the field and to provide an overview of the possible growth of this technology.


All English language publications on Telementoring and Telesurgery for minimally invasive urologic procedures were evaluated. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) statement to evaluate PubMed®, Scopus®, and Web of Science™ databases (up to June 2019).


Our electronic search identified a total of 124 papers in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Of these, 81 publications were identified for detailed review, which yielded 22 included in the present systematic review. Our results showed that remote surgery has been under-utilised until today, mostly due to the lack of appropriate telecommunication technologies.


Remote live surgery is a growing technology that is catalyzing incremental interest. Despite not being yet reliable today on a regular basis in its most advanced applications, thanks to the advent of novel data-transmission technologies, telepresence might become a critical educational methodology, highly impacting the global healthcare system


Live surgery Telementoring Teleassistance Teletraining Telesurgery Telepresence Remote 


Author contributions

DV: Manuscript writing, Protocol development. AT: Project development. JGR: Manuscript editing. AD: Manuscript editing. ZO: Manuscript editing. BKS: Manuscript editing. NM: Data collection. GF: Protocol development. GC: Data collection and management.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals


Informed consent



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology and Kidney TransplantGrande Ospedale MetropolitanoReggio CalabriaItaly
  2. 2.Department of UrologyZucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/NorthwellHempsteadUSA
  3. 3.USC Institute of Urology and Catherine and JosephUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Department of UrologyUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly
  5. 5.Department of UrologyHospital Universitario La PazMadridSpain
  6. 6.Department of Urology, Camargo Cancer CenterSao PauloBrasil
  7. 7.Department of UrologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  8. 8.University Hospital Southampton NHS TrustSouthamptonUK
  9. 9.University of FoggiaFoggiaItaly

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