Augmentation cystoplasty in the patient with neurogenic bladder
To review the indications and techniques of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB) while also examining the long-term outcomes, complications, and follow-up surgeries.
PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched for articles related to AC and NGB.
AC is indicated for an overactive or poorly compliant bladder refractory to conservative therapies, such as anticholinergic medications and bladder botulinum toxin injections. A variety of surgical techniques using gastrointestinal segments, alternative tissues, and synthetic materials have been described, though bowel remains the most durable. Ileocystoplasty is the most common type of AC, which uses a detubularized patch of ileum that is anastomosed to a bivalved bladder. Some patients undergo concomitant surgeries at the time of AC, such as catheterizable channel creation to aid with clean intermittent catheterization, ureteral reimplantation to treat vesicoureteral reflux, and bladder outlet procedure to treat incontinence. Following AC, the majority of patients experience an improvement in bladder capacity, compliance, and continence. Most patients also experience an improvement in quality of life. AC has significant complications, such as chronic UTIs, bladder and renal calculi, metabolic disturbances, bowel problems, perforation, and malignancy. AC also has a high rate of follow-up surgeries, especially if the patient undergoes concomitant creation of a catheterizable channel.
Enterocystoplasty remains the gold standard for AC, though more research is needed to better evaluate the morbidity of different surgical techniques and the indications for concomitant surgeries. Experimental methods of AC with tissue engineering are a promising area for further investigation.
KeywordsBladder Augmentation cystoplasty Enterocystoplasty Neurogenic bladder
PC: project development, data collection or management, data analysis, manuscript writing/editing. JM: project development, data collection or management, data analysis, manuscript writing/editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Philip Cheng has no conflict of interest. Jeremy Myers is a consultant for Urotronic and an investor in StreamDx. He receives grant and research support from the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), the Department of Defense, the Nielsen Foundation, the American Urologic Association, and Boston Scientific.
We did not perform research involving human participants and/or animals.
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