A review of inflammation and fibrosis: implications for the pathogenesis of Peyronie’s disease

  • Darshan P. Patel
  • Michael B. Christensen
  • James M. Hotaling
  • Alexander W. PastuszakEmail author
Topic Paper


Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a superficial fibrosing disorder that causes penile deformity and can interfere with sexual intercourse and reproduction, as well as diminish quality of life. While the exact mechanism of PD is still being investigated, there is likely a genetic component to the predisposition to penile plaque formation. Ultimately, however, perturbations in normal wound healing and aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix components lead to fibrotic tissue deposition. Fibrosis in PD is regulated by a complex pathway of inflammatory and fibrotic mediators. Currently there are no treatments for PD that address an underlying cause or disease progression. In this review, we provide an overview of the known inflammatory and fibrotic mediators of PD and explore the pathophysiology of other human superficial fibrosing disorders to develop further insights into PD.


Peyronie’s disease Penile induration Dupuytren’s contracture Ledderhose disease Fibrosis Inflammation Transforming growth factor beta Cytokines 



A.W.P. is a National Institutes of Health K08 Scholar supported by a Mentored Career Development Award (K08DK115835-01) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. This work is also supported in part through a Urology Care Foundation Rising Stars in Urology Award (to A.W.P.).

Author contributions

DPP: literature review, manuscript writing/editing, critical review, approval of final manuscript. MBC: literature review, manuscript writing/editing, critical review, approval of final manuscript. JMH: manuscript writing/editing, critical review, approval of final manuscript. AWP: literature review, manuscript writing/editing, critical review, approval of final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

DP Patel: None. MB Christensen: None. JM Hotaling: Dr. Hotaling receives research and fellowship support from Boston Scientific and Endo Pharmaceuticals. He holds leadership roles/equity interest in Nanonc, StreamDx, and Andro360 which are all early stage startup companies. AW Pastuszak: Dr. Pastuszak is an advisor to Endo Pharmaceuticals, Boston Scientific, and Antares Pharmaceuticals, and a speaker for Endo Pharmaceuticals and Bayer AG. He is a consultant and receives research and fellowship support from Endo Pharmaceuticals. He holds a leadership position with Woven Health, of which he is also a founder. As this is a review article, no research involving human participants and/or animals was carried out and no informed consent was needed.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darshan P. Patel
    • 1
  • Michael B. Christensen
    • 1
  • James M. Hotaling
    • 1
  • Alexander W. Pastuszak
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Center for Reconstructive Urology and Men’s HealthUniversity of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake CityUSA

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