Optimal sequencing strategy using docetaxel and androgen receptor axis-targeted agents in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer: utilization of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio

  • Kyo Chul Koo
  • Jong Soo Lee
  • Jee Soo Ha
  • Kyung Suk Han
  • Kwang Suk Lee
  • Yoon Soo Hah
  • Koon Ho Rha
  • Sung Joon Hong
  • Byung Ha ChungEmail author
Original Article



To investigate the prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for the selection of the optimal sequencing strategy using docetaxel and androgen receptor axis-targeted (ARAT) agents in patients with M0 or M1 castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Currently, there is a need to identify biomarkers to guide optimal sequential treatment in CRPC.


This multicenter, retrospective analysis included 303 consecutive patients initially diagnosed with M0 or M1 CRPC between September 2009 and March 2017. Of these, 52 (17.2%) patients received pre-docetaxel ARAT agents and 189 (62.4%) patients received post-docetaxel ARAT agents. The prognostic ability of NLR at CRPC diagnosis regarding radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were investigated. For the analysis, the NLR level was dichotomized at 2.5, and evaluated according to sequencing strategy.


Multivariate analysis revealed NLR ≥ 2.5 as an independent predictor of a lower risk for CSS. During the median follow-up of 18.5 months, patients with NLR ≥ 2.5 exhibited significantly lower 1-year rPFS (p = 0.011) and 2-year CSS rates (p = 0.005) compared to patients with NLR < 2.5. Among patients with NLR < 2.5, the post-docetaxel ARAT agent sequencing group exhibited higher 1-year rPFS (p = 0.031) and 2-year CSS (p = 0.026) rates compared to the pre-docetaxel ARAT agent sequencing group. Among patients with NLR ≥ 2.5, rPFS and CSS rates were comparable regardless of ARAT agent sequencing.


NLR ≥ 2.5 at CRPC diagnosis is associated with a lower risk for CSS. Patients with NLR < 2.5 should primarily be offered docetaxel considering the survival benefit of docetaxel-to-ARAT agent sequencing.


Docetaxel Lymphocytes Neutrophils Prostatic neoplasms Castration resistant Survival 



This study was supported by the Young Researcher Program Grant of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2017R1C1B5017516).

Author contributions

Protocol/project development: KCK, KHR, SJH, and BHC; data collection and management: JSL, JSH, KSL, and YSH; data analysis: KCK and KSH; manuscript writing/editing: Koo and Chung.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All of the authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was not required for the purposes of this study as it was based upon retrospective anonymous patient data and did not involve patient intervention or the use of human tissue samples.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology, Gangnam Severance HospitalYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Urology, Severance HospitalYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea

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