A newly developed porcine training model for transurethral piecemeal and en bloc resection of bladder tumour

  • Jeremy Yuen-Chun TeohEmail author
  • Chak-Lam Cho
  • Yong Wei
  • Shuji Isotani
  • Ho-Yee Tiong
  • Teng-Aik Ong
  • Kittinut Kijvikai
  • Peggy Sau-Kwan Chu
  • Eddie Shu-Yin Chan
  • Chi-Fai NgEmail author
  • the Asian Urological Surgery Training & Education Group
Original Article



The Asian Urological Surgery Training & Education Group (AUSTEG) has been established to provide training and education to young urologists in Asia. We developed and validated a porcine bladder training model for transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT).


Urology residents and specialists were invited to test the training model. They were asked to complete a pre-task questionnaire, to perform piecemeal and en bloc resection of ‘bladder tumours’ within the training model, and to complete a post-task questionnaire afterwards. Their performances were assessed by faculty members of the AUSTEG. For the face validity, a pre-task questionnaire consisting of six statements on TURBT and the training model were set. For the content validity, a post-task questionnaire consisting of 14 items on the details of the training model were set. For the construct validity, a Global Rating Scale was used to assess the participants’ performances. The participants were stratified into two groups (junior surgeons and senior surgeons groups) according to their duration of urology training.


For the pre-task questionnaire, a mean score of ≥ 4.0 out of 5.0 was achieved in 5 out of 6 statements. For the post-task questionnaire, a mean score of ≥ 4.5 out of 5.0 was achieved in every item. For the Global Rating Scale, the senior surgeons group had higher scores than the junior surgeons group in 8 out of 11 items as well as the total score.


A porcine TURBT training model has been developed, and its face, content and construct validity has been established.


Bladder cancer Bladder tumour Training model Education TURBT En bloc resection 



Asian Urological Surgery Training & Education Group


Transurethral resection of bladder tumour


Author contributions

JYCT: project development, data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing. CLC: project development, data collection, manuscript writing. YW: project development, data collection, manuscript writing. SI: data analysis, manuscript editing. HYT: data analysis, manuscript editing. TAO: data analysis, manuscript editing. KK: data collection, manuscript editing. PSKC: data collection, manuscript editing. ESYC: project development, data collection, manuscript editing. CFN: project development, data collection, manuscript editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

For this type of study formal consent is not required.

Informed consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chak-Lam Cho
    • 2
  • Yong Wei
    • 3
  • Shuji Isotani
    • 4
  • Ho-Yee Tiong
    • 5
  • Teng-Aik Ong
    • 6
  • Kittinut Kijvikai
    • 7
  • Peggy Sau-Kwan Chu
    • 8
  • Eddie Shu-Yin Chan
    • 1
  • Chi-Fai Ng
    • 1
    Email author
  • the Asian Urological Surgery Training & Education Group
  1. 1.S.H. Ho Urology Centre, Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales HospitalThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUnion HospitalHong KongChina
  3. 3.Department of UrologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical UniversityFuzhouChina
  4. 4.Department of UrologyJuntendo University, Graduate School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Department of UrologyNational University HospitalSingaporeSingapore
  6. 6.Department of SurgeryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  7. 7.Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryRamathibodi Hospital, Mahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  8. 8.Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryTuen Mun HospitalHong KongChina

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