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The cardiovascular risk factors in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

  • Chi-hang Yee
  • Jenny S. Y. Yip
  • Nicole M. Y. Cheng
  • Cheuk-hang Kwan
  • Kai-man Li
  • Jeremy Y. C. Teoh
  • Peter K. F. Chiu
  • Joseph Hon-ming Wong
  • Eddie S. Y. Chan
  • Chi-kwok Chan
  • Simon S. M. Hou
  • Chi-fai Ng
Original Article

Abstract

Objective

It has been hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction and pelvic atherosclerosis may contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We assessed the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and LUTS severity in male patients presented to urology clinic.

Methods

It is a cross-sectional study on patients who presented between 2013 and 2015 with LUTS. A total of 1176 male patients were encountered, and 966 were included for analysis after excluding patients with urinary tract malignancy, urethral stricture, bladder stone and history of urinary tract surgery. Cardiovascular risk factors including components of Framingham risk score, body mass index, uroflowmetry, International Prostate Symptoms Score, fasting blood glucose and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were assessed. Correlation between Framingham risk score, cardiovascular risk factors and severity of LUTS was investigated.

Results

Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that severe LUTS significantly associated with Framingham score (P = 0.008) and its components of total cholesterol (OR = 1.318; P = 0.010) and age (OR = 1.032; P = 0.006) compare with mild symptoms. Framingham risk score was found to correlate with storage symptoms (CC = 0.083; P < 0.0001) but not voiding symptoms (CC = − 0.029; P = 0.185).

Conclusions

Severity of LUTS and storage symptom significantly increases Framingham risk score, particularly with the components of total cholesterol level and age.

Keywords

Benign prostate hyperplasia Cardiovascular risk Lower urinary tract symptoms 

Notes

Authors contribution

CHY: Protocol, project development, data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing. JSYY: Protocol, project development, data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing. NMYC: Project development, data collection. CHK: Project development, data collection. KML: Project development, data collection. JYCT: Project development, data collection. PKFC: Project development, data collection. JHMW: Project development, data collection. ESYC: Project development, data collection. CKC: Project development, data collection. SSMH: Project development, data collection. CFN: Project development, data collection.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal participants right

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chi-hang Yee
    • 1
  • Jenny S. Y. Yip
    • 1
  • Nicole M. Y. Cheng
    • 1
  • Cheuk-hang Kwan
    • 1
  • Kai-man Li
    • 1
  • Jeremy Y. C. Teoh
    • 1
  • Peter K. F. Chiu
    • 1
  • Joseph Hon-ming Wong
    • 1
  • Eddie S. Y. Chan
    • 1
  • Chi-kwok Chan
    • 1
  • Simon S. M. Hou
    • 1
  • Chi-fai Ng
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, S.H. Ho Urology Centre, Prince of Wales HospitalThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong

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