How bothersome double-J ureteral stents are after semirigid and flexible ureteroscopy: a prospective single-institution observational study
To evaluate in details the actual extent of double-J stent-related symptoms after semirigid (URS) and flexible (RIRS) ureteroscopy using a validated questionnaire.
We asked to complete the Ureteric Stent Symptoms Questionnaire (USSQ) to all stone patients undergoing URS or RIRS with stent placement from 2010 to 2015. Stent-related symptoms’ prevalence, severity, and impact on daily life were analyzed using descriptive statistics and five-order Likert scales. Subgroups analyses were performed.
232 patients completed the USSQ. Stents had a deep impact on urinary symptoms (daily frequency ≥ 1 per hour 59.1%, ≥ 1 nocturnal micturition 90.1%, urgency 86.6%, burning 82.3%) that represented a problem for 88.4% of patients. 83.2% complained of pain, mostly in the kidney (67.9%) or in the bladder area (31.3%), particularly during physical activity (72.9%) and micturition (77.0%). Pain interfered with everyday life in 92.2%. General health, working, and sexual activity were also affected. 62.0% of patients would be dissatisfied (51.6% unhappy or terrible) if further ureteral stenting was proposed in future. Younger patients and females were more affected. Limitations include observational design and lack of baseline evaluation.
Ureteral stents are responsible for significant urinary symptoms and pain after semirigid and flexible ureteroscopy. They also considerably affect general health, working and sexual activity. Urologists should consider it carefully before stenting, inform patients about stent-related symptoms, and minimize stent indwelling time.
KeywordsLower urinary tract symptoms Pain Stents Ureteroscopy Urinary calculi
AB: protocol development, data collection and management, data analysis, manuscript writing. EA, ED, DP, and SA: data collection and management. AB, PD, RP, and PG: protocol development and data analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 18.Likert R (1932) A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Arch Psychol 22:55Google Scholar
- 20.Basu S, Watson GM (2000) JJ stents cause less pain than full-blown renal colic—but only just. BJU Int 85(Suppl 5):22Google Scholar