Effect of Salinity Stress on Enzymes’ Activity, Ions Concentration, Oxidative Stress Parameters, Biochemical Traits, Content of Sulforaphane, and CYP79F1 Gene Expression Level in Lepidium draba Plant

  • Kiarash Jamshidi GoharriziEmail author
  • Ali Riahi-Madvar
  • Fatemeh Rezaee
  • Rambod Pakzad
  • Fereshteh Jadid Bonyad
  • Mahshid Ghazizadeh Ahsaei


In the first step in this study, the effect of 50 mM NaCl was studied on germination percentage of five different Lepidium draba (L. draba) ecotypes, and Rafsanjan ecotype was selected as experimental material as it had the highest germination percentage. In the second step, some biochemical, physiological, and morphological traits along with content of sulforaphane (SFN) as well as the expression level of Cytochorome P450 79F1 (CYP79F1) were evaluated in 14-day-old L. draba sprouts that grew 9 days in the presence of various concentrations of NaCl including 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM. According to the results of this study, germination percentage of Rafsanjan ecotype along with lengths of stem and root were declined with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase enzymes activity increased up to 75 mM NaCl and then decreased. With increasing the doses of NaCl, concentrations of Na+ and Cl increased, whereas P, Ca2+, and K+ decreased. Also, accumulation of some oxidative stress parameters including electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, other aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide increased with increasing NaCl concentrations in all samples. Furthermore, contents of total phenolic, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin, total free amino acids, and total soluble carbohydrate were induced with the induction of NaCl concentrations. In this study, SFN formation increased with increasing concentration of sodium chloride up to 75 mM and decreased at higher concentration. In the last step, a partial CYP79F1 mRNA and its protein sequence were identified and registered in GenBank and then changes in the CYP79F1 gene expression levels under 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM NaCl were calculated. The gene expression levels of CYP79F1 also showed the same pattern as was seen for SFN formation under salinity stress.


L. draba Sulforaphane CYP79F1 Oxidative stress Biochemical traits Ions concentration 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the Barafza Keshavarz Pars Company for financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding, Yazd BranchIslamic Azad UniversityYazdIran
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental SciencesGraduate University of Advanced TechnologyKermanIran
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  4. 4.Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental SciencesGraduate University of Advanced TechnologyKermanIran

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