Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and Induced Asynaptic Mutation: A Meiotic Study

  • Kalyan Singh KushwahEmail author
  • Sapan Patel


We have synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and studied the cytogenotoxic effect of the synthesized NPs on plants. The synthesized NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and PSA. The XRD results showed the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles. The SEM analysis showed that the synthesized nanoparticles range from 60 to 300 nm. The effect of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles on Vicia faba (2n = 12) was studied. The seeds of Vicia faba were treated with different concentrations (15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg/L, or 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 24.0 mg/100 mL) of TiO2 nanoparticles. Seeds treated with the higher concentrations of TiO2 showed a change in the meiotic activity which causes a significant increase of chromosomal abnormalities in the reproductive parts of the plant. Different types of meiotic abnormalities, such as stickiness and the separation of univalent and bivalent chromosomes at metaphase were recorded. It was found that the number of univalent chromosomes ranged from 2 to 12 in 95% of pollen mother cells in diakinesis/metaphase I, and that there was a significant decrease in the number of chiasmata in seeds which were treated with the synthesized nanoparticles as compared to the control.


Asynaptic mutant Cytotoxicity Faba bean Meiosis Vicia faba Titanium dioxide Univalent/bivalent chromosomes 





Generation of plants




Pollen mother cells


Titanium dioxide

V. faba

Vicia faba



The authors are grateful to the Head of Department, School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, for providing support. We are also grateful to the central instrumentation facility and the physics department of Jiwaji University for providing all the required instruments.

Author Contributions

KSK designed the plan of work, performed the experiments, prepared the manuscript, and the characterization of TiO2 NPs. SP co-wrote the manuscript together with KSK, supervised the study and provided valuable suggestions to improve the study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human and Animal Rights

The authors declare that the current work was done on plants and there was no involvement of animals. We declare that this work has no harmful effects on any animals or human beings.


  1. Castiglione MR, Giorgetti L, Geri C, Cremonini R (2011) The effects of nano-TiO2 on seed germination, development and mitosis of root tip cells of Vicia narbonensis L. and Zea mays L. J Nanoparticle Res 13(6):2443–2449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cvjetko P, Milošić A, Domijan AM, Vrček IV, Tolić S, Štefanić PP, Balen B (2017) Toxicity of silver ions and differently coated silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa roots. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 137:18–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fan R, Huang YC, Grusak MA, Huang CP, Sherrier DJ (2014) Effects of nano-TiO2 on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium–legume symbiosis. Sci Total Environ 466:503–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ghosh M, Bandyopadhyay M, Mukherjee A (2010) Genotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles at two trophic levels: plant and human lymphocytes. Chemosphere 81(10):1253–1262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ghosh M, Jana A, Sinha S, Jothiramajayam M, Nag A, Chakraborty A, Mukherjee A (2016) Effects of ZnO nanoparticles in plants: cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, deregulation of antioxidant defenses, and cell-cycle arrest. Mutat Res/Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagenesis 807:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gottschalk F, Sun T, Nowack B (2013) Environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials: review of modeling and analytical studies. Environ Pollut 181:287–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hanif HU, Arshad M, Ali MA, Ahmed N, Qazi IA (2015) Phyto-availability of phosphorus to Lactuca sativa in response to soil applied TiO2 nanoparticles. Pak J Agric Sci 52(1):177–182Google Scholar
  8. Hussain S, Iqbal N, Brestic M, Raza MA, Pang T, Langham DR, Liu W (2019) Changes in morphology, chlorophyll fluorescence performance and Rubisco activity of soybean in response to foliar application of ionic titanium under normal light and shade environment. Sci Total Environ 658:626–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jiang HS, Qiu XN, Li GB, Li W, Yin LY (2014) Silver nanoparticles induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species and alteration of antioxidant systems in the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrhiza. Environ Toxicol Chem 33(6):1398–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Joshi P, Verma RC (2005) Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) induced (partial) asynaptic mutant in faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Cytologia 70(2):143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kanaya N, Gill BS, Grover IS, Murin A, Osiecka R, Sandhu SS, Andersson HC (1994) Vicia faba chromosomal aberration assay. Mutat Res/Fund Mol Mech Mutagenesis 310(2):231–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kumari M, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2009) Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa. Sci Total Environ 407(19):5243–5246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kushwah KS, Verma RC, Patel S, Jain NK (2018) Colchicine induced polyploidy in Chrysanthemum carinatum L. J Phylogenetics Evol Biol 6(193):2Google Scholar
  14. Li X, Yang Y (2014) A novel perspective on seed yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.): differences resulting from pod characteristics. Sci Rep 4:6859PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Loss SP, Siddique KHM (1997) Adaptation of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to dryland Mediterranean-type environments I. Seed yield and yield components. Field Crops Res. 52(1–2):17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ma TH (1982) Vicia cytogenetic tests for environmental mutagens: a report of the US environmental protection agency gene-tox program. Mutat Res/Rev Genet Toxicol 99(3):257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Magdolenova Z, Collins A, Kumar A, Dhawan A, Stone V, Dusinska M (2014) Mechanisms of genotoxicity A review of in vitro and in vivo studies with engineered nanoparticles. Nanotoxicology 8(3):233–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mehta CM, Srivastava R, Arora S, Sharma AK (2016) Impact assessment of silver nanoparticles on plant growth and soil bacterial diversity. 3 Biotech 6(2):254.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Movafeghi A, Khataee A, Abedi M, Tarrahi R, Dadpour M, Vafaei F (2018) Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza: evaluation of growth parameters, pigment contents and antioxidant enzyme activities. J Environ Sci 64:130–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Newman MD, Stotland M, Ellis JI (2009) The safety of nanosized particles in titanium dioxide-and zinc oxide-based sunscreens. J Am Acad Dermatol 61(4):685–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nohynek GJ, Dufour EK, Roberts MS (2008) Nanotechnology, cosmetics and the skin: is there a health risk? Skin Pharmacol Physiol 21(3):136–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pakrashi S, Jain N, Dalai S, Jayakumar J, Chandrasekaran PT, Raichur AM, Mukherjee A (2014) In vivo genotoxicity assessment of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by Allium cepa root tip assay at high exposure concentrations. PLoS ONE 9(2):e87789PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Palmqvist NGM, Bejai S, Meijer J, Seisenbaeva GA, Kessler VG (2015) Nano titania aided clustering and adhesion of beneficial bacteria to plant roots to enhance crop growth and stress management. Sci Rep 5:10146PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patlolla AK, Berry A, May L, Tchounwou PB (2012) Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in Vicia faba: a pilot study on the environmental monitoring of nanoparticles. Int J Environ Res Public Health 9(5):1649–1662PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rafique R, Arshad M, Khokhar MF, Qazi IA, Hamza A, Virk N (2015) Growth response of wheat to titania nanoparticles application. NUST J Eng Sci 7(1):42–46Google Scholar
  26. Raliya R, Nair R, Chavalmane S, Wang WN, Biswas P (2015) Mechanistic evaluation of translocation and physiological impact of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plant. Metallomics 7(12):1584–1594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rastogi A, Zivcak M, Sytar O, Kalaji HM, He X, Mbarki S, Brestic M (2017) Impact of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on plant: a critical review. Front Chem 5:78PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rico CM, Majumdar S, Duarte-Gardea M, Peralta-Videa JR, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2011) Interaction of nanoparticles with edible plants and their possible implications in the food chain. J Agric Food Chem 59(8):3485–3498PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh M, Upadhyaya HD, Bisht IS (eds.) (2013). Genetic and genomic resources of grain legume improvement. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  30. Song U, Shin M, Lee G, Roh J, Kim Y, Lee EJ (2013) Functional analysis of TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity in three plant species. Biol Trace Elem Res 155(1):93–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sun TY, Conroy G, Donner E, Hungerbühler K, Lombi E, Nowack B (2015) Probabilistic modelling of engineered nanomaterial emissions to the environment: a spatio-temporal approach. Environ Sci: Nano 2(4):340–351Google Scholar
  32. Sytar O, Kumari P, Yadav S, Brestic M, Rastogi A (2019) Phytohormone priming: regulator for heavy metal stress in plants. J Plant Growth Regul 38(2):739–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tiwari DC, Pukhrambam D, Dwivedi SK et al (2017) PPy/TiO2(np)Polymer nanocomposite material for microwave absorption. J. Mater Sci. Mater Electron. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Trouiller B, Reliene R, Westbrook A, Solaimani P, Schiestl RH (2009) Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce DNA damage and genetic instability in vivo in mice. Can Res 69(22):8784–8789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Verma RC (2004) Radiation, and EMS Induced translocation and inversion heterozygotes in Vicia faba L. J. Cytol. Genet. 5(1):45–52Google Scholar
  36. Vevers WF, Jha AN (2008) Genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on fish cells in vitro. Ecotoxicology 17(5):410–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yang L, Watts DJ (2005) Particle surface characteristics may play an important role in phytotoxicity of alumina nanoparticles. Toxicol Lett 158(2):122–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yang F, Liu C, Gao F, Su M, Wu X, Zheng L, Yang P (2007) The improvement of spinach growth by nano-anatase TiO2 treatment is related to nitrogen photoreduction. Biol Trace Elem Res 119(1):77–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zheng L, Hong F, Lu S, Liu C (2005) Effect of nano-TiO2 on strength of naturally aged seeds and growth of spinach. Biol Trace Elem Res 104(1):83–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SOS BotanyJiwaji UniversityGwaliorIndia

Personalised recommendations