Assigning a Role to the Endogenous Phenolic Compounds on Adventitious Root Formation of Olive Stem Cuttings

  • Nikoleta-Kleio DenaxaEmail author
  • Peter A. Roussos
  • Stavros N. Vemmos


The objective of this study was to role the effect of phenolic compounds on the rooting potential of leafy cuttings of the recalcitrant to root olive cultivar ‘Kalamata’ and the easy to root ‘Arbequina’. Subsamples of cuttings were taken for analysis before planting (day 0) in the mist system and during the early phases of rhizogenesis (EPR). ‘Kalamata’ presented higher initial (day 0) total phenols in summer and total o-diphenols in autumn and spring compared to ‘Arbequina’, while ‘Arbequina’ had significantly higher initial total flavonoids and flavanols in autumn. A positive correlation was found between initial total phenols and rooting ability of ‘Arbequina’. In ‘Kalamata’ a positive correlation was established between initial total o-diphenols and rooting percentage while total flavonoids were negatively correlated with rooting. Generally, total phenols, o-diphenols, flavanols and flavonoids did not differ between the two cultivars and their concentration reduced significantly 15 days after planting. Furthermore, ‘Arbequina’ presented higher initial tyrosol, chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, rutin, quercetin and luteolin in summer and autumn compared to ‘Kalamata’. The above phenolics were positively correlated with the rooting of ‘Arbequina’. Significant changes were observed in the concentration of the individual phenolics during the EPR, whereas chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin and luteolin concentration increased significantly from day 1 to 5. In conclusion, there is a clear relationship between the phenolic profile and adventitious rooting of the two olive cultivars and in fact chlorogenic acid and rutin can be proposed as olive rooting enhancers.


Chlorogenic acid Flavonoids HPLC phenolics Rhizogenesis Rutin Total phenols 



Aluminium chloride




Days after planting




Early phases of rhizogenesis


Indole-3-acetic acid


Indole-3-butyric acid



At this point we would like to thank our colleague Mr. George Kostelenos for providing us with the plant material and the mist propagation system of the nursery at the premises of ‘Kostelenos nurseries’. Also, the authors confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Pomology, Department of Crop ScienceAgricultural University of AthensAthensGreece

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