Role of 24-Epibrassinolide in Inducing Thermo-Tolerance in Plants

  • Mohsin TanveerEmail author


High-temperature stress (HT) is one of the most dramatic abiotic stresses, reducing crop yield significantly. Hormone application has been seen as one of most effective approaches in ameliorating HT stress-induced detrimental effects in plants. 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) is an active by-product produced during brassinolide biosynthesis and can induce thermo-tolerance in plants by playing multiple roles in different metabolic processes. EBL application improves or protects plant growth and development under HT stress by improving the process of development and by protecting different plant growth stages from HT stress. Shortly, EBL improves plant growth and yield by improving germination, pollen development, pollen germination, biomass production and the source-to-sink relationship under HT stress. Moreover, EBL also enhances carbon assimilation rate, maintains positive redox potential and increases solute accumulation. EBL also increases the production of heat shock proteins (HSPs) to further cope with HT stress. In conclusion, EBL is a very impressive phyto-hormone, which can ameliorate HT stress-induced detrimental effects in plants. In this review article, potential mechanisms are discussed with respect to EBL-induced thermo-tolerance in plants.


24-Epibrassinolide Thermo-tolerance Redox homeostasis Proline Heat shock proteins Yield 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author has no conflicts of interest to disclose.


  1. Abd Allah EF, Alqarawi AA, Hashem A, Wirth S, Egamberdieva D (2018) Regulatory roles of 24-epibrassinolide in tolerance of Acacia gerrardii Benth to salt stress. Bioengineered 9(1):61–71PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcázar R, Altabella T, Marco F, Bortolotti C, Reymond M, Koncz C, Carrasco P, Tiburcio AF (2010) Polyamines: molecules with regulatory functions in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Planta 231(6):1237–1249PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali Q, Ashraf M (2008) Modulation of growth, photosynthetic capacity and water relations in salt stressed wheat plants by exogenously applied 24-epibrassinolide. Plant Growth Regul 56:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allakhverdiev SI, Kreslavski VD, Klimov VV, Los DA, Carpentier R, Mohanty P (2008) Heat stress: an overview of molecular responses in photosynthesis. Photosynth Res 98(1–3):541PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Angadi SV, Cutforth HW, Miller PR, McConkey BG, Entz MH, Brandt SA, Volkmar KM (2000) Response of three Brassica species to high temperature stress during reproductive growth. Can J Plant Sci 80(4):693–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anjum SA, Wang LC, Farooq M, Hussain M, Xue LL, Zou CM (2011) Brassinolide application improves the drought tolerance in maize through modulation of enzymatic antioxidants and leaf gas exchange. J Agron Crop Sci 197:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anjum SA, Tanveer M, Hussain S et al (2016a) Exogenously applied methyl jasmonate improves the drought tolerance in wheat imposed at early and late developmental stages. Acta Physiol Plant 38:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anjum SA, Tanveer M, Hussain S et al (2016b) Osmoregulation and antioxidant production in maize under combined cadmium and arsenic stress. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:11864–11875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anjum SA, Ashraf U, Imran K, Tanveer M, Shahid M, Shakoor A, Longchang W (2017) Phyto-toxicity of chromium in maize: oxidative damage, osmolyte accumulation, anti-oxidative defense and chromium uptake. Pedosphere 27(2):262–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashraf MFMR, Foolad M (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59(2):206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ashraf M, Akram NA, Arteca RN, Foolad MR (2010) The physiological, biochemical and molecular roles of brassinosteroids and salicylic acid in plant processes and salt tolerance. Crit Rev Plant Sci 29(3):162–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bajguz A (2000) Effect of brassinosteroids on nucleic acids and protein content in cultured cells of Chlorella vulgaris. Plant Physiol Biochem 38(3):209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bajguz A, Hayat S (2009) Effects of brassinosteroids on the plant responses to environmental stresses. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:1–8PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Barbosa MR, Silva MMDA, Willadino L, Ulisses C, Camara TR (2014) Plant generation and enzymatic detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Ciência Rural 44(3):453–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bita C, Gerats T (2013) Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress-tolerant crops. Front Plant Sci 4:273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blokhina O, Virolainen E, Fagerstedt KV (2003) Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: a review. Ann Botany 91:179–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buonasera K, Lambreva M, Rea G, Touloupakis E, Giardi M (2011) Technological applications of chlorophyll a fluorescence for the assessment of environmental pollutants. Anal Bioanal Chem 401:1139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cao YY, Hua ZHAO (2008) Protective roles of brassinolide on rice seedlings under high temperature stress. Rice Sci 15(1):63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Catterou M, Dubois F, Schaller H, Aubanelle L, Vilcot B, Sangwan-Norreel BS, Sangwan RS (2001) Brassinosteroids, microtubules and cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. II. Effects of brassinosteroids on microtubules and cell elongation in the bul1 mutant. Planta 212(5–6):673–683PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen Y, Wang XM, Zhou L, He Y, Wang D, Qi YH, Jiang DA (2015) Rubisco activase is also a multiple responder to abiotic stresses in rice. PLoS ONE 10(10):e0140934PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen Z, Wang Z, Yang Y, Li M, Xu B (2018) Abscisic acid and brassinolide combined application synergistically enhances drought tolerance and photosynthesis of tall fescue under water stress. Sci Hortic 228:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Gara L, Paciolla C, De Tullio MC, Motto M, Arrigoni O (2000) Ascorbate-dependent hydrogen peroxide detoxification and ascorbate regeneration during germination of a highly productive maize hybrid: evidence of an improved detoxification mechanism against reactive oxygen species. Physiol Plant 109(1):7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dhaubhadel S, Chaudhary S, Dobinson KF, Krishna P (1999) Treatment with 24-epibrassinolide, a brassinosteroid, increases the basic thermotolerance of Brassica napus and tomato seedlings. Plant Mol Biol 40(2):333–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dhaubhadel S, Browning KS, Gallie DR, Krishna P (2002) Brassinosteroid functions to protect the translational machinery and heat-shock protein synthesis following thermal stress. Plant J 29(6):681–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Djanaguiraman M, Boyle DL, Welti R, Jagadish SVK, Prasad PVV (2018) Decreased photosynthetic rate under high temperature in wheat is due to lipid desaturation, oxidation, acylation, and damage of organelles. BMC Plant Biol 18(1):55PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dobra J, Motyka V, Dobrev P, Malbeck J, Prasil IT, Haisel D, … Vankova R (2010) Comparison of hormonal responses to heat, drought and combined stress in tobacco plants with elevated proline content. J Plant Physiol 167(16):1360–1370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dong Y, Wang W, Hu G, Chen W, Zhuge Y, Wang Z, He MR (2017) Role of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide in enhancing the salt tolerance of wheat seedlings. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 17(3):554–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dubey RS (2005) Photosynthesis in plants under stressful conditions. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of photosynthesis, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, pp 717–737Google Scholar
  29. Fahad S, Hussain S, Saud S, Tanveer M, Bajwa AA, Hassan S, Noor N, Shah F (2015) A biochar application protects rice pollen from high-temperature stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 96:281–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fahad S, Hussain S, Saud S, Hassan S, Tanveer M et al (2016) A combined application of biochar and phosphorus alleviates heat-induced adversities on physiological, agronomical and quality attributes of rice. Plant Physiol Biochem 103:191–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fariduddin Q, Khalil RR, Mir BA, Yusuf M, Ahmad A (2013) 24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress. Environ Monit Assess 185(9):7845–7856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Farooq M, Wahid A, Basra SMA (2009) Improving water relations and gas exchange with brassinosteroids in rice under drought stress. J Agron Crop Sci 195(4):262–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Foyer CH, Noctor G (2011) Ascorbate and glutathione: the heart of the redox hub. Plant Physiol 155(1):2–18PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S (2002) An early C-22 oxidation branch in the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway. Plant Physiol 130:930–939PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gupta P, Srivastava S, Seth CS (2017) 24-Epibrassinolide and sodium nitroprusside alleviate the salinity stress in Brassica juncea L. cv. Varuna through cross talk among proline, nitrogen metabolism and abscisic acid. Plant Soil 411:483–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Alam MM, Roychowdhury R, Fujita M (2013) Physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of heat stress tolerance in plants. Int J Mol Sci 14(5):9643–9684PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hayat S, Hasan SA, Yusuf M, Hayat Q, Ahmad A (2010) Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on photosynthesis, fluorescence and antioxidant system in the presence or absence of salinity and temperature in Vigna radiata. Environ Exp Bot 69(2):105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hayat S, Yadav S, Wani AS, Irfan M, Ahmad A (2011) Comparative effect of 28-homobrassinolide and 24-epibrassinolide on the growth, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency of Lycopersicon esculentum. Photosynthetica 49(3):397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hiremath SS, Sajeevan RS, Nataraja KN, Chaturvedi AK, Chinnusamy V, Pal M (2017) Silencing of fatty acid desaturase (FAD7) gene enhances membrane stability and photosynthetic efficiency under heat stress in tobacco. Indian J Exp Biol 55:532–541Google Scholar
  40. Hussain S, Khaliq A, Tanveer M et al (2018) Aspirin priming circumvents the salinity-induced effects on wheat emergence and seedling growth by regulating starch metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities. Acta Physiol Plant 40:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jagadish SVK, Muthurajan R, Oane R, Wheeler TR, Heuer S, Bennett J, Craufurd PQ (2009) Physiological and proteomic approaches to address heat tolerance during anthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Exp Bot 61(1):143–156PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jajoo A, Allakhverdiev SI (2017) High-temperature stress in plants: consequences and strategies for protecting photosynthetic machinery. In: Shabala S (ed) Plant stress physiology, 2nd edn. CAB International, Oxfordshire, p 138–154Google Scholar
  43. Janeczko A, Oklešťková J, Pociecha E, Kościelniak J, Mirek M (2011) Physiological effects and transport of 24-epibrassinolide in heat-stressed barley. Acta Physiol Plant 33(4):1249–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kagale S, Divi UK, Krochko JE, Keller WA, Krishna P (2007) Brassinosteroid confers tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus to a range of abiotic stresses. Planta 225(2):353–364PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Kaplan F, Kopka J, Haskell DW, Zhao W, Schiller KC, Gatzke N, Sung DY, Guy CL (2004) Exploring the temperature-stress metabolome of arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 136(4):4159–4168PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kartal G, Temel A, Arican E, Gozukirmizi N (2009) Effects of brassinosteroids on barley root growth, antioxidant system and cell division. Plant Growth Regul 58(3):261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Khripach V, Zhabinskii V, de Groot A (2000) Twenty years of brassinosteroids: steroidal plant hormones warrant better crops for the XXI century. Ann Bot 86(3):441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kim TW, Guan S, Sun Y, Deng Z, Tang W, Shang JX, … Wang ZY (2009) Brassinosteroid signal transduction from cell-surface receptor kinases to nuclear transcription factors. Nat Cell Biol 11(10):1254PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Königshofer H, Tromballa HW, Löppert HG (2008) Early events in signalling high-temperature stress in tobacco BY2 cells involve alterations in membrane fluidity and enhanced hydrogen peroxide production. Plant Cell Environ 31:1771–1780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kurepin LV, Ivanov AG, Zaman M, Pharis RP, Hurry V, Hüner NP (2017) Interaction of glycine betaine and plant hormones: protection of the photosynthetic apparatus during abiotic stress. In: Photosynthesis: structures, mechanisms, and applications. Springer, Cham, pp 185–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Li J, Yang P, Gan Y, Yu J, Xie J (2015) Brassinosteroid alleviates chilling-induced oxidative stress in pepper by enhancing antioxidation systems and maintenance of photosystem II. Acta Physiol Plant 37(11):222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lima JV, Lobato AKS (2017) Brassinosteroids improve photosystem II efficiency, gas exchange, antioxidant enzymes and growth of cowpea plants exposed to water deficit. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 23(1):59–72PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu Y, Zhao Z, Si J, Di C, Han J, An L (2009) Brassinosteroids alleviate chilling-induced oxidative damage by enhancing antioxidant defense system in suspension cultured cells of Chorispora bungeana. Plant Growth Regul 59(3):207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence—a practical guide. J Exp Bot 51(345):659–668PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Mir BA, Khan TA, Fariduddin Q (2015a) 24-epibrassinolide and spermidine modulate photosynthesis and antioxidant systems in Vigna radiata under salt and zinc stress. Int J Adv Res 3:592–608Google Scholar
  56. Mir BA, Khan TA, Fariduddin Q (2015b) 24-epibrassinolide and spermidine modulate photosynthesis and antioxidant systems in Vigna radiata under salt and zinc stress. Int J 3:592–608Google Scholar
  57. Mori K, Yokota T (2017) Molecular structure and biological activity of brassinolide and related brassinosteroids. In Molecular structure and biological activity of steroids, CRC Press, New York (pp. 317–340)Google Scholar
  58. Morris DA (2017) Hormonal regulation of source-sink relationships. In: Zamski E, Schaffer AA, (eds) Photoassimilate Distribution Plants and Crops Source-Sink Relationships. Dekker, New York, p 441Google Scholar
  59. Murakami Y, Tsuyama M, Kobayashi Y, Kodama H, Iba K (2000) Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of high temperature. Science 287(5452):476–479PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Nama S, Madireddi SK, Yadav RM, Subramanyam R (2018) Non-photochemical quenching-dependent acclimation and thylakoid organization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to high light stress. Photosynth Res. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Nover L, Bharti K, Döring P, Mishra SK, Ganguli A, Scharf KD (2001) Arabidopsis and the heat stress transcription factor world: how many heat stress transcription factors do we need? Cell Stress Chaperones 6(3):177PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ogweno JO, Song XS, Shi K, Hu WH, Mao WH, Zhou YH, Yu JQ, Nogués S (2008) Brassinosteroids alleviate heat-induced inhibition of photosynthesis by increasing carboxylation efficiency and enhancing antioxidant systems in Lycopersicon esculentum. J Plant Growth Regul 27(1):49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Paul MJ, Foyer CH (2001) Sink regulation of photosynthesis. J Exp Bot 52(360):1383–1400PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Paul MJ, Pellny TK (2003) Carbon metabolite feedback regulation of leaf photosynthesis and development. J Exp Bot 54(382):539–547PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Prasad PV, Boote KJ, Allen LH Jr (2006) Adverse high temperature effects on pollen viability, seed-set, seed yield and harvest index of grain-sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are more severe at elevated carbon dioxide due to higher tissue temperatures. Agric For Meteorol 139(3–4):237–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Prasad PV, Pisipati SR, Mutava RN, Tuinstra MR (2008) Sensitivity of grain sorghum to high temperature stress during reproductive development. Crop Sci 48(5):1911–1917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rahman SL, Mackay WA, Nawata E, Sakuratani T, Uddin AM, Quebedeaux B (2004) Superoxide dismutase and stress tolerance of four tomato cultivars. Hortscience 39:983–986Google Scholar
  68. Ribeiro RV, Machado EC, Santos MG, Oliveira RF (2009) Photosynthesis and water relations of well-watered orange plants as affected by winter and summer conditions. Photosynthetica 47:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sasse JM (2003) Physiological actions of brassinosteroids: an update. J Plant Growth Regul 22(4):276–288PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Schlüter U, Köpke D, Altmann T, Müssig C (2002) Analysis of carbohydrate metabolism of CPD antisense plants and the brassinosteroid-deficient cbb1 mutant. Plant Cell Environ 25(6):783–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shahid MA, Pervez MA, Balal RM, Mattson NS, Rashid A, Ahmad R, Ayyub CM, Abbas T (2011) Brassinosteroid (24-Epibrassinolide) enhances growth and alleviates the deleterious effects induced by salt stress in pea (‘Pisum sativum’ L.). Aust J Crop Sci 5(5):500Google Scholar
  72. Shahzad B, Tanveer M, Che Z, Rehman A, Cheema SA, Sharma A, Song H, ur Rehman S, Zhaorong D (2018) Role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) in mediating heavy metal and pesticide induced oxidative stress in plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 147:935–944PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Sharma I, Pati PK, Bhardwaj R (2011) Effect of 24-epibrassinolide on oxidative stress markers induced by nickel-ion in Raphanus sativus L. Acta Physiol Plant 33(5):1723–1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sharma I, Bhardwaj R, Pati PK (2013) Stress modulation response of 24-epibrassinolide against imidacloprid in an elite indica rice variety Pusa Basmati-1. Pestic Biochem Physiol 105(2):144–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sharma A, Kumar V, Singh R, Thukral AK, Bhardwaj R (2015) 24-Epibrassinolide induces the synthesis of phytochemicals effected by imidacloprid pesticide stress in Brassica juncea L. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 4(3):60–64Google Scholar
  76. Sharma A, Thakur S, Kumar V, Kesavan AK, Thukral AK, Bhardwaj R (2017) 24-epibrassinolide stimulates imidacloprid detoxification by modulating the gene expression of Brassica juncea L. BMC Plant Biol 17(1):56PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sharma A, Kumar V, Kumar R, Shahzad B, Thukral AK, Bhardwaj R (2018) Brassinosteroid-mediated pesticide detoxification in plants: a mini-review. Cogent Food Agric 4(1):1436212Google Scholar
  78. Shimada Y, Goda H, Nakamura A, Takatsuto S, Fujioka S, Yoshida S (2003) Organ-specific expression of brassinosteroid-biosynthetic genes and distribution of endogenous brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 131(1):287–297PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Siddiqui H, Hayat S, Bajguz A (2018a) Regulation of photosynthesis by brassinosteroids in plants. Acta Physiol Plant 40(3):59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Siddiqui H, Ahmed KBM, Hayat S (2018b) Comparative effect of 28-homobrassinolide and 24-epibrassinolide on the performance of different components influencing the photosynthetic machinery in Brassica juncea L. Plant Physiol Biochem. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Silva END, Ribeiro RV, Ferreira-Silva SL, Viégas RA, Silveira JAG (2011) Salt stress induced damages on the photosynthesis of physic nut young plants. Sci Agric 68(1):62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Silva EN, Ribeiro RV, Ferreira-Silva SL, Vieira SA, Ponte LF, Silveira JA (2012) Coordinate changes in photosynthesis, sugar accumulation and antioxidative enzymes improve the performance of Jatropha curcas plants under drought stress. Biomass Bioenergy 45:270–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Singh I, Shono M (2005) Physiological and molecular effects of 24-epibrassinolide, a brassinosteroid on thermotolerance of tomato. Plant Growth Regul 47(2–3):111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Singh VP, Prasad SM, Munné-Bosch S, Müller M (2017) Phytohormones and the regulation of stress tolerance in plants: current status and future directions. Front Plant Sci 8:1871PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Singh A, Sengar K, Sharma MK, Sengar RS, Garg SK (2018) Proline metabolism as sensors of abiotic stress in sugarcane. In: Biotechnology to enhance sugarcane productivity and stress tolerance, CRC Press, New York, (pp. 281–300)Google Scholar
  86. Talaat NB, Shawky BT, Ibrahim AS (2015) Alleviation of drought-induced oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays L.) plants by dual application of 24-epibrassinolide and spermine. Environ Exp Bot 113:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tanveer M, Shabala S (2018) Targeting redox regulatory mechanisms for salinity stress tolerance in Crops. In: Salinity Responses and Tolerance in Plants, Springer, Cham, Vol 1:pp 213–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tanveer M, Shahzad B, Sharma A, Biju S, Bhardwaj R (2018) 24-Epibrassinolide; an active brassinolide and its role in salt stress tolerance in plants: a review. Plant Physiol Biochem 130:69–79PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Teixeira EI, Fischer G, van Velthuizen H, Walter C, Ewert F (2013) Global hot-spots of heat stress on agricultural crops due to climate change. Agric For Meteorol 170:206–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vardhini BV, Rao SSR (2003) Amelioration of osmotic stress by brassinosteroids on seed germination and seedling growth of three varieties of sorghum. Plant Growth Regul 41(1):25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vollenweider P, Günthardt-Goerg MS (2005) Diagnosis of abiotic and biotic stress factors using the visible symptoms in foliage. Environ Pollut 137(3):455–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wahid A (2007) Physiological implications of metabolite biosynthesis for net assimilation and heat-stress tolerance of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) sprouts. J Plant Res 120:219–228PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 61(3):199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang W, Vinocur B, Altman A (2003) Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 218(1):1–14PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Wang GP, Hui Z, Li F, Zhao MR, Zhang J, Wang W (2010) Improvement of heat and drought photosynthetic tolerance in wheat by overaccumulation of glycinebetaine. Plant Biotechnol Rep 4(3):213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wani AS, Tahir I, Ahmad SS, Dar RA, Nisar S (2017) Efficacy of 24-epibrassinolide in improving the nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant system in chickpea cultivars under cadmium and/or NaCl stress. Sci Hortic 225:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wu X, Yao X, Chen J, Zhu Z, Zhang H, Zha D (2014) Brassinosteroids protect photosynthesis and antioxidant system of eggplant seedlings from high-temperature stress. Acta Physiol Plant 36(2):251–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Xia XJ, Huang LF, Zhou YH, Mao WH, Shi K, Wu JX, Asami T, Chen Z, Yu JQ (2009) Brassinosteroids promote photosynthesis and growth by enhancing activation of Rubisco and expression of photosynthetic genes in Cucumis sativus. Planta 230(6):1185PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Ye J, Wang S, Deng X, Yin L, Xiong B, Wang X (2016) Melatonin increased maize (Zea mays L.) seedling drought tolerance by alleviating drought-induced photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative damage. Acta physiol Plant 38:48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yu JQ, Huang LF, Hu WH, Zhou YH, Mao WH, Ye SF, Nogués S (2004) A role for brassinosteroids in the regulation of photosynthesis in Cucumis sativus. J Exp Bot 55(399):1135–1143PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Yusuf M, Fariduddin Q, Ahmad A (2012) 24-Epibrassinolide modulates growth, nodulation, antioxidant system, and osmolyte in tolerant and sensitive varieties of Vigna radiata under different levels of nickel: a shotgun approach. Plant Physiol Biochem 57:143–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Yusuf M, Fariduddin Q, Khan T, Hayat S (2017) Epibrassinolide reverses the stress generated by combination of excess aluminum and salt in two wheat cultivars through altered proline metabolism and antioxidants. S Afr J Bot 112:391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhang YP, Zhu XH, Ding HD, Yang SJ, Chen YY (2013) Foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide alleviates high-temperature-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in seedlings of two melon cultivars. Photosynthetica 51(3):341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhang YP, He J, Yang SJ, Chen YY (2014) Exogenous 24-epibrassinolide ameliorates high temperature-induced inhibition of growth and photosynthesis in Cucumis melo. Biol Plant 58(2):311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Land and FoodUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations