Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 650–668 | Cite as

Endophytic Bacteria in Plant Salt Stress Tolerance: Current and Future Prospects

  • Anukool Vaishnav
  • Awadhesh K. Shukla
  • Anjney Sharma
  • Roshan Kumar
  • Devendra K. ChoudharyEmail author


Soil salinity is a major limiting factor for crop productivity worldwide and is continuously increasing owing to climate change. A wide range of studies and practices have been performed to induce salt tolerance mechanisms in plants, but their result in crop improvement has been limited due to lack of time and money. In the current scenario, there is increasing attention towards habitat-imposed plant stress tolerance driven by plant-associated microbes, either rhizospheric and/or endophytic. These microbes play a key role in protecting plants against various environmental stresses. Therefore, the use of plant growth-promoting microbes in agriculture is a low-cost and eco-friendly technology to enhance crop productivity in saline areas. In the present review, the authors describe the functionality of endophytic bacteria and their modes of action to enhance salinity tolerance in plants, with special reference to osmotic and ionic stress management. There is concrete evidence that endophytic bacteria serve host functions, such as improving osmolytes, anti-oxidant and phytohormonal signaling and enhancing plant nutrient uptake efficiency. More research on endophytes has enabled us to gain insights into the mechanism of colonization and their interactions with plants. With this information in mind, the authors tried to solve the following questions: (1) how do benign endophytes ameliorate salt stress in plants? (2) What type of physiological changes incur in plants under salt stress conditions? And (3), what type of determinants produced by endophytes will be helpful in plant growth promotion under salt stress?


Bacteria Endophytes Habitat-imposed tolerance Phytohormones Salinity 



The first and corresponding author duly acknowledge DBT and SERB-Grant no. BT/PR1231/AGR/21/340/2011 and SR/FT/LS-129/2012 to DKC respectively whereon idea was conceived to write glimpses in this area. Corresponding authors express thanks to co-authors for their contribution to design figures and compilation of review paper very worthy.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anukool Vaishnav
    • 1
  • Awadhesh K. Shukla
    • 2
  • Anjney Sharma
    • 3
  • Roshan Kumar
    • 4
  • Devendra K. Choudhary
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.K. S. Saket PG College (Affiliated to Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India)FaizabadIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms KushmaurMaunath BhanjanIndia
  4. 4.National Centre of Biological ScienceBangaloreIndia
  5. 5.Amity Institute of Microbial Technology (AIMT)Amity UniversityNoidaIndia

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