Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 513–522 | Cite as

Cloning and Expression Analysis of SiCDPK4, a Gene Related to Heterosis in Foxtail Millet [(Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.)]

  • Dan Liu
  • Suying Li
  • Lina Wang
  • Qiang Li
  • Yanjiao Cui
  • Xiaodong Dai
  • Zilong Zhao
  • Chao ChenEmail author
  • Junxia LiEmail author
  • Zhengli LiuEmail author


Heterosis, which refers to the superior performance of an F1 hybrid compared to its parents, has been widely used in crop production to increase grain yield. However, the mechanism responsible for heterosis still remains to be explored. Here, we report involvement of Setaria italica Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 4 (SiCDPK4) in yield-related heterosis of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.). Transient expression of SiCDPK4-GFP in foxtail millet protoplasts located SiCDPK4 to the plasma membrane. Analysis of its spatial and temporal expression pattern revealed that SiCDPK4 expressed mainly in leaves, but also in roots and spikes. At the filling stage, significantly higher levels of the SiCDPK4 transcript were observed in the leaves and spikes of hybrids with strong yield heterosis than those with medium and weak heterosis, suggesting that SiCDPK4 is most likely related to yield heterosis in foxtail millet.


Foxtail millet Heterosis Calcium-dependent protein kinase Gene cloning Gene expression analysis 



Sequence data from this article can be found in NCBI/Ensemble plants database under the following accession numbers: ZmCPK16 (NM_001359579), NtCPK4 (AAL30819.1), OsCDPK1 (A2ZV17.1), OsCDPK2 (Q5VQQ5.1), OsCDPK3 (Q8LPZ7.1), OsCDPK4 (Q6Z2M9.1), OsCDPK5 (Q0DYK7.1), OsCDPK6 (Q6K968.1), OsCDPK7 (P53684.2), OsCDPK8 (Q75GE8.1), OsCDPK9 (Q6AVI8.1), OsCDPK10 (Q6F3A6.1), OsCDPK11 (Q852N6.1), OsCDPK12 (Q7XSQ5.2), OsCDPK13 (Q9FXQ3.1), OsCDPK14 (B9FKW9.1), OsCDPK15 (Q6I587.1), OsCDPK16 (Q6I5I8.1), OsCDPK17 (Q7XM0.1), OsCDPK18 (Q0D715.1), OsCDPK19 (P53683.2), OsCDPK20 (Q84SL0.2), OsCDPK21 (Q6ZIU9.1), OsCDPK22 (Q69IM9.1), OsCDPK23 (P53682.2), OsCDPK24 (Q53P85.1), OsCDPK25 (Q2RAV0.1), OsCDPK26 (Q2QY37.1), OsCDPK27 (Q2QQR2.1), OsCDPK28 (Q2QX45.1), OsCDPK29 (Q2QVG8.1), AtCDPK1 (Q06850.1), AtCDPK2 (Q38870.1), AtCDPK3 (Q42479.1), AtCDPK4 (Q38869.1), AtCDPK5 (Q38871.1), AtCDPK6 (Q38872.1), AtCDPK7 (Q38873.1), AtCDPK8 (Q42438.1), AtCDPK9 (Q38868.1), AtCDPK10 (Q9M9V8.1), AtCDPK11 (Q39016.2), AtCDPK12 (Q42396.1), AtCDPK13 (Q8W4I7.2), AtCDPK14 (P93759.1), AtCDPK15 (O49717.1), AtCDPK16 (Q7XJR9.1), AtCDPK17 (Q9FMP5.1), AtCDPK18 (Q1PE17.1), AtCDPK19 (Q1PFH8.1), AtCDPK20 (Q9ZV15.1), AtCDPK21 (Q9ZSA2.1), AtCDPK22 (Q9ZSA3.2), AtCDPK23 (Q9M101.1), AtCDPK24 (Q9SIQ7.1), AtCDPK25 (Q9SJ61.1), AtCDPK26 (AEE86901.1), AtCDPK27 (Q9ZSA4.3), AtCDPK28 (Q9FKW4.1), AtCDPK29 (Q8RWL2.2), AtCDPK30 (Q9SSF8.1), AtCDPK31 (Q9S9V0.2), AtCDPK32 (Q6NLQ6.1), AtCDPK33 (Q9C6P3.1), AtCDPK34 (Q3E9C0.1), SiACTIN (KQL08744) and SiCDPKs (KQL02746, KQL05940, KQL07402, KQL07578, KQL13693, KQL14095, KQL14917, KQL15106, KQL16903, KQL22510, KQL23326, KQL25296, KQL25992, KQL26299, KQL28913, KQL30978, KQL32268, KQK86528, KQK86759, KQK86762, KQK92778, KQK92779, KQK93782, KQK93793, KQK97667, KQK98445, KQK98623, KQK99515). This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31471563).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

344_2018_9866_MOESM1_ESM.doc (84 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 83 KB)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Life SciencesTangshan Normal UniversityTangshanChina
  2. 2.Tianjin Crop Research InstituteTianjin Academy of Agricultural SciencesTianjinChina
  3. 3.Institute of Grain CropsHenan Academy of Agriculture ScienceZhengzhouChina

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