Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 449–462 | Cite as

Pretreatment with Proline or an Organic Bio-stimulant Induces Salt Tolerance in Wheat Plants by Improving Antioxidant Redox State and Enzymatic Activities and Reducing the Oxidative Stress

  • Mostafa M. RadyEmail author
  • Alpaslan Kuşvuran
  • Hesham F. Alharby
  • Yahya Alzahrani
  • Sebnem Kuşvuran


In this study, the effects of seed soaking in proline (12 mM) or Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE; 6%) on the biomass, yield, and the antioxidant systems were investigated using wheat plants grown under NaCl stress (120 mM). Shoot fresh and dry weights, yield, K+ ion accumulation, K+/Na+ ration, soluble protein, photosynthetic pigment (that is, carotenoids and chlorophylls) contents, and efficiency (that is, Fv/Fm and performance index; PI) of wheat were decreased at salt-stress treatment. Salinity increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate and glutathione peroxidases, and the content of malondialdehyde, H2O2, and Na+ and Cl contents in leaf compared to control. Additionally, increased magnitudes of proline, soluble sugar, soluble protein, ascorbate, glutathione contents were more pronounced under 120 mM NaCl than those under control. Proline or MLE ameliorated the inhibitory effects of NaCl stress to varying degrees, ensuring significant amelioration on biomass, yield, osmoprotectants and antioxidant systems. In comparison to proline, seed soaking with MLE was more effective in improving wheat growth and yield by mitigating the inhibitory effects of salinity stress. The presented results indicate that seed soaking with 6% MLE can contribute to protecting wheat seedlings/plants against NaCl stress by mitigating the oxidative stress.


Seed soaking Salt stress Stimulants Antioxidant system Wheat 


Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MMR and HFA. Performed the experiments: AK, HFA, YA, SK, and MMR. Analyzed the data: AK, HFA, and YA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HFA and SK. Wrote the paper: AK and SK. Revised the paper: MMR, HFA, and YA. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Botany Department, Faculty of AgricultureFayoum UniversityFayoumEgypt
  2. 2.Cankiri Karatekin University, Kizilirmak Vocational High SchoolÇankırıTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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