Differential Effects of Paclobutrazol on the Bulblet Growth of Oriental Lily Cultured In Vitro: Growth Behavior, Carbohydrate Metabolism, and Antioxidant Capacity
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Bulblet growth is crucial for global lily production, and the applications of plant growth regulators have proven effective but with poor understanding of mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the effects of paclobutrazol (PBZ) on tube lilies. Low PBZ concentrations (5 × 10−4 mM, LPBZ) stimulated bulblet biomass, whereas higher doses suppressed the growth of the leaves and roots. Soluble carbohydrate and starch contents increased significantly with increased PBZ dose. The activities of adenosine 5′-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), and soluble starch synthase (SSS) increased dramatically in response to PBZ treatments at later growth stages (60 days after transplanting) when carbon starvation occurred. In contrast, GBSS activity was enhanced throughout the whole growth period, indicating that the starch increase was attributed mainly to amylose synthesis. Carbohydrates were utilized more efficiently following LPBZ, with a relative bulblet weight of approximately 77.07%, which potentially ensured the source-sink balance. Alternatively, more carbohydrates were stored in response to high PBZ concentration. Intriguingly, PBZ usage significantly increased the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase at the early stages, implicating a possible role in the elimination of ROS to maintain homeostasis. Application of LPBZ resulted in the largest bulblet, which weighed 396 mg (2.5 times that of the control) and measured 10.70 mm in diameter. The detailed characterizations of the bulblet swelling mechanism using PBZ in vitro offer suggestions of future PBZ usage in other bulbous crops.
KeywordsOrgan formation Paclobutrazol Granule-bound starch synthase Dynamic changes Source-sink balance Reactive oxygen species
Special acknowledgments are given to the editors and reviewers. This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31772337) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2017M612005).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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