Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 343–356 | Cite as

Utilizing the Allelopathic Potential of Brassica Species for Sustainable Crop Production: A Review

  • Shamsur Rehman
  • Babar Shahzad
  • Ali Ahsan Bajwa
  • Saddam Hussain
  • Abdul Rehman
  • Sardar Alam Cheema
  • Tasawer Abbas
  • Asif Ali
  • Liaqat Shah
  • Steve Adkins
  • Peijin LiEmail author


Sustainable crop production under changing climate is crucial to feed the increasing population of the world. Efforts are underway to discover novel strategies to ensure global food security. Allelopathy is one such phenomenon that can help in this regard. It is a direct or indirect and positive or negative effect of plant species on other plant species and microorganisms, through the release of secondary metabolites known as allelochemicals. Brassica species are well known for their allelopathic potential as most of them endogenously produce potent allelochemicals such as glucosinolates, allyl isothiocyanates, and brassinosteroids. These allelochemicals are highly phytotoxic to target species when released at high concentrations and, therefore, affect their growth and development. This review illustrates the potential role of Brassica allelopathy for crop production in modern agriculture. Allelopathic potential of Brassica species can be utilized for weed management by using them as cover crops, companion crops, and intercrops, for mulching and residue incorporation, or simply by including them in crop rotations. Similarly, the expression of allelochemicals from these species have great value in the management of crop pests and diseases, and abiotic stresses. Most of these allelochemicals can also act as crop growth promoters when released or applied at low concentrations. Although the use of chemical herbicides, pesticides, and synthetic growth regulators is currently inevitable for crop production, the use of ecological options like allelopathy may help in achieving global food security sustainably. Exploring the potential of Brassica allelopathy could be promising in achieving higher productivity without compromising the environmental safety.


Brassica Allelochemicals Weed suppression Abiotic stress tolerance Crop growth regulation Sustainable agriculture 



All the authors declared no conflict of interest in this article. This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0301301) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31670264).


  1. Ali B, Hasan SA, Hayat S, Hayat Q, Yadav S, Fariduddin Q, Wilczek L (2008) A role for brassinosteroids in the amelioration of aluminium stress through antioxidant system in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Env Exp Bot 62(2):153–159. Google Scholar
  2. Al-Sherif E, Hegazy AK, Gomaa NH, Hassan MO (2013) Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds. Planta Daninha 31(1):11–19Google Scholar
  3. Al-Turki AI, Dick WA (2003) Myrosinase activity in soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67:139–145. Google Scholar
  4. Anaya AL, Waller GR, Owuor PO, Friedman J, Chou CH, Suzuki T, Arroyo-Estrada JF, Cruz-Ortega R (2002) The role of caffeine in the production decline due to auto toxicity in coffee and tea production. In: Reigosa MJ, Pedrol N (eds) Allelopathy from molecules to ecosystems. Science Publishers Inc., Enfiled, pp 71–92Google Scholar
  5. Anjum SA, Wang LC, Farooq M, Hussain M, Xue LL, Zou CM (2011) Brassinolide application improves the drought tolerance in maize through modulation of enzymatic antioxidants and leaf gas exchange. J Agron Crop Sci 195:420–426Google Scholar
  6. Anuradha S (2002) Alleviating influence of brassinolide on salinity stress induced inhibition of germination and seedling growth of rice. Indian J Plant Physiol 7(4):384–387Google Scholar
  7. Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2007) Effect of brassinosteroids on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings growing under cadmium stress. Plant Soil Environ 53:465–472Google Scholar
  8. Anuradha M, Nageswararao K, Prabhakarababu D (2003) Effect of commercial formulation of brassinolide on growth, yield and quality of fluecured virginia tobacco. Indian J Plant Physiol 8(1):93–95Google Scholar
  9. Avato P, D’Addabbo T, Leonetti P, Argentieri MP (2013) Nematicidal potential of Brassicaceae. Phytochem Rev 12:791–802Google Scholar
  10. Awan FK, Rasheed M, Ashraf M, Khurshid MY (2012) Efficacy of Brassica sorghum and sunflower aqueous extracts to control wheat weeds under rainfed conditions of Pothwar, Pakistan. J Anim Plant Sci 22(3):715–721Google Scholar
  11. Bagger CL, Buskov S, Hasselstrom JB, Rosa E, Sorensen H, Sorenson JC (1999) Bioactives from Cruciferous crops especially glucosinolate derived products produced in pilot plant scale and used as biocides supplementary to synthetic pesticides. Paper presented at International Rapeseed Congress, 10. International Rapeseed Congress, 1991, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  12. Bajguz A (2000) Blockade of heavy metals accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris cells by 24-epibrassinolide. Plant Physiol Biochem 38(10):797–801. Google Scholar
  13. Bajguz A, Hayat S (2009) Effects of brassinosteroids on the plant responses to environmental stresses. Plant Physiol Biochem 47(1):1–8. Google Scholar
  14. Bajwa AA (2014) Sustainable weed management in conservation agriculture. Crop Prot 65:105–113Google Scholar
  15. Bajwa AA, Farooq M (2017) Seed priming with sorghum water extract and benzyl amino purine along with surfactant improves germination metabolism and early seedling growth of wheat. Arch Agron Soil Sci 63:319–329Google Scholar
  16. Bajwa AA, Khalid S, Sadia S, Nabeel M, Nafees W (2013) Influence of combinations of allelopathic water extracts of different plants on wheat and wild oat. Pak J Weed Sci Res 19:157–166Google Scholar
  17. Bajwa AA, Ehsaullah Anjum SA, Nafees W, Tanveer M, Saeed S (2014) Impact of fertilizer use on weed management in conservation agriculture: a review. Pak J Agric Res 27:161–171Google Scholar
  18. Bajwa AA, Mahajan G, Chauhan BS (2015) Nonconventional weed management strategies for modern agriculture. Weed Sci 63:723–747Google Scholar
  19. Bajwa AA, Chauhan BS, Farooq M, Shabbir A, Adkins SW (2016) What do we really know about alien plant invasion? A review of the invasion mechanism of one of the world’s worst weeds. Planta 244:39–57Google Scholar
  20. Bajwa AA, Walsh M, Chauhan BS (2017) Weed management using crop competition in Australia. Crop Prot 95:8–13Google Scholar
  21. Bajwa AA, Farooq M, Nawaz A (2018) Seed priming with sorghum extracts and benzyl aminopurine improves the tolerance against salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Physiol Mol Biol Plants. Google Scholar
  22. Barba FJ, Nikmaram N, Roohinejad S, Khelfa A, Zhu Z, Koubaa M (2016) Bioavailability of glucosinolates and their breakdown products: impact of processing. Front Nutr 3:24Google Scholar
  23. Batish DR, Singh HP, Kaur S (2001) Crop allelopathy and its role in ecological agriculture. J Crop Prod 4:121–161Google Scholar
  24. Batish DR, Singh HP, Setia N, Kaur S, Kohli RK (2006) 2-Benzox- azolinone (BOA) induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and changes in some antioxidant enzyme activities in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus). Plant Physiol Biochem 44:819–827Google Scholar
  25. Bell DT, Muller CH (1973) Dominance of California annual grasslands by Brassica nigra. Am Midland Nat 90:277–299Google Scholar
  26. Bending GD, Lincoln SD (1999) Characterisation of volatile sulphur-containing compounds produced during decomposition of Brassica juncea tissues in soil. Soil Bio Biochem 31:695–703Google Scholar
  27. Bertholdsson NO (2012) Allelopathy-A tool to improve the weed competitive ability of wheat with herbicide-resistant black grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.). Agron J 2:284–294Google Scholar
  28. Bertin C, Yang X, Weston LA (2003) The role of root exudates and allelochemicals in the rhizosphere. Plant Soil 256:67–83Google Scholar
  29. Bhadoria PBS (2011) Allelopathy: a natural way towards weed management. Am J Exp Agric 1:7–20Google Scholar
  30. Bhowmik PC, Inderjit (2003) Challenges and opportunities in implementing allelopathy for natural weed management. Crop Prot 22:661–667Google Scholar
  31. Bialy Z, Oleszek W, Lewis J, Fenwick GR (1990) Allelopathy potential of glucosinolates (mustard oil glysides) and their degradation products against wheat. Plant Soil 129:181–277Google Scholar
  32. Biswas PK, Morshed MM, Ullah MJ, Irin IJ (2014) Allelopathic effect of Brassica on weed control and yield of wheat. Bangladesh Agron J 17(1):73–80Google Scholar
  33. Blum U, Shafer SR, Lehman ME (1999) Evidence for inhibitory allelopathic interactions involving phenolic acids in field soils: concepts vs. an experimental model. Crit Rev Plant Sci 18:673–693Google Scholar
  34. Boydston R, Hang A (1995) Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) green manure crop suppresses weeds in potato (Solanum tubeosum L.). Weed Technol 9:669–675Google Scholar
  35. Boydston RA, Morra MJ, Borek V, Clayton L, Vaughn SF (2011) Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal. Weed Sci 59:546–552Google Scholar
  36. Bressan M, Roncato MA, Bellvert F, Comte G, el ZaharHaichar F, Achouak W, Berge O (2009) Exogenous glucosinolate produced by Arabidopsis thaliana has an impact on microbes in the rhizosphere and plant roots. ISME J 3:1243–1257. Google Scholar
  37. Brown PD, Morra MJ (1996) Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates in Brassica napus tissues as inhibitors of seed germination. Plant Soil 181:307–316Google Scholar
  38. Burgos NR, Talbert RE, Kim KS, Kuk YI (2004) Growth inhibition and root ultrastructure of cucumber seedlings exposed to allelochemicals from rye (Secale cereale). J Chem Ecol 30:671–689Google Scholar
  39. Cai SL, Mu XQ (2012) Allelopathic potential of aqueous leaf extracts of Datura stramonium L. on seed germination, seedling growth and root anatomy of Glycine max (L.) Merrill. Allelopathy J 30:235–245Google Scholar
  40. Cheema ZA, Khaliq A (2000) Use of sorghum allelopathic properties to control weeds in irrigated wheat in semi-arid region of Punjab. Agric Ecosyst Environ 79:105–112Google Scholar
  41. Cheema ZA, Rakha A, Khaliq A (2000) Use of sorgaab and sorghum mulch for weed management in mung bean. Pak J Agric Sci 37:140–144Google Scholar
  42. Cheema ZA, Khaliq A, Saeed S (2004) Weed control in maize (Zea mays L.) through sorghum allelopathy. J Sust Agric 23:73–86Google Scholar
  43. Cheng F, Cheng Z (2015) Research progress on the use of plant allelopathy in agriculture and the physiological and ecological mechanisms of allelopathy. Front Plant Sci 6:1020. Google Scholar
  44. Choi CD, Kim SC, Lee SK (1990) Agricultural use of the plant growth regulators, effect of brassinolide on reducing heribicidal phytotoxicity of rice seedlings. Res Rep Rural Dev Adm Rice 32(1):65–71Google Scholar
  45. Chon SU, Jennings JA, Nelson CJ (2006) Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) autotoxicity: current status. Allelopathy J 18:57–80Google Scholar
  46. Clark A (2008) Managing cover crops profitably. Diane, CollingdaleGoogle Scholar
  47. Clarke DB (2010) Glucosinolate, structures and analysis in food. Anal Methods 2:310–325Google Scholar
  48. Clouse SD, Sasse JM (1998) BRASSINOSTEROIDS: essential regulators of plant growth and development. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:427–451Google Scholar
  49. Dai R, Lim LT (2014) Release of allyl isothiocyanate from mustard seed mealpowder. J Food Sci 79:E47–E53Google Scholar
  50. Dalio RJD, Pinheiro HP, Sodek L, Haddad CRB (2011) The effect of 24-epibrassinolide and clotrimazole on the adaptation of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. to salinity. Physiol Plant 33(5):1887–1896. Google Scholar
  51. de Albuquerque MB, dos Santos RC, Lima LM, de Albuquerque Melo Filho P, Nogueira RJMC., Da Câmara CAG, de Rezende Ramos A (2011) Allelopathy, an alternative tool to improve cropping systems: a review. Agron Sust Dev 31:379–395. Google Scholar
  52. Devakumar C, Parmar BS (1993) Pesticides of higher plant and microbialorigin. In: Parmar BS, Devakumar C (eds) Botanical and pesticides. SPS Publication No. 4, Society of Pesticide Science. India and Westvill Publis House, New Delhi, pp 1–73Google Scholar
  53. Dhima K, Vasilakoglou I, Paschalidis KA, Gatsis T, Keco R (2012) Productivity and phytotoxicity of six sunflower hybrids and their residues effects on rotated lentil and ivy-leaved speedwell. Field Crops Res 136:42–51. Google Scholar
  54. Divi UK, Rahman T, Krishna P (2010) Brassinosteroid-mediated stress tolerance in Arabidopsis shows interactions with abscisic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid pathways. BMC Plant Biol 10:151. Google Scholar
  55. Duke SO (2015) Proving allelopathy in crop-weed interactions. Weed Sci 63(Species issue):121–132Google Scholar
  56. Duke SO, Dayan FE, Rimando AM, Schrader KK, Aliotta G, Oliva A, Romagni JG (2002) Chemicals from nature for weed management. Weed Sci 50:138–151Google Scholar
  57. Duke SO, Cedergreen N, Velini ED, Belz RG (2006) Hormesis: is it an important factor in herbicide use and allelopathy? Outlooks Pest Manag 17:29–33Google Scholar
  58. Einhellig FA (1986) Mechanisms and modes of action of allelochemicals. In: Putnam AR, Tang CS (eds). The science of allelopathy. Wiley, New York, pp 171–187Google Scholar
  59. Einhellig FA (2004) Mode of allelochemical action of phenolic compounds. In: Macias FA, Galindo JCG, Molinilo JMG, Cutler HG (eds) Allelopathy: chemistry and mode of action of allelochemicals. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 217–238Google Scholar
  60. Einhellig FA, Rasmussen JA (1979) Effects of three phenolic acids on chlorophyll content and growth of soybean and grain sorghum seedlings. J Chem Ecol 5:815–824Google Scholar
  61. Einhellig FA, Muth MS, Schon MK (1985) Effects of allelochemicals on plant-water relationship. In: Thompson AC (ed) The chemistry of allelopathy. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp 170–195Google Scholar
  62. Ellis DR, Guillard K, Adams RG (2000) Purslane as living mulch in broccoli production. Am J Altern Agric 15:50–59. Google Scholar
  63. Fahad S, Bajwa AA, Nazir U, Anjum SA, Farooq A, Zohaib A, Sehrish S, Nasim W, Adkins S, Saud S, Ihsan MZ, Alharby H, Wu C, Wang D, Huang J (2017) Crop production under drought and heat stress: plant responses and management options. Front Plant Sci 8:1147. Google Scholar
  64. Farhoudi R, Zangane HS, Saeedipour S (2012) Allelopathical effect of barley [Hordeum valgare (L.) cv. Karon] on germination and lipid peroxidation of wild mustard seedling. Res Crop 13:467–471Google Scholar
  65. Farooq M, Jabran K, Cheema ZA, Wahid A, Siddique KHM (2011) The role of allelopathy in agricultural pest management. Pest Manag Sci 67:493–506Google Scholar
  66. Farooq M, Bajwa AA, Cheema SA, Cheema ZA (2013) Application of allelopathy in crop production. Int J Agric Biol 15:1367‒1378Google Scholar
  67. Fenwick GR, Griffiths NM, Heaney RK (1983) Bitterness in Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L. var. gemmifera): the role of glucosinolates and their breakdown products. J Sci Food Agric 34:73–80Google Scholar
  68. Friedman J, Waller GR (1983) Caffeine hazards and their prevention in germinating seeds of coffee (Coffea arabica L.). J Chem Ecol 9:1099–1106Google Scholar
  69. Fujii S, Hirai K, Saka H (1991) Growth-regulating action of brassinolide in rice plants. ACS Symp Series Am Chem Soc 474:306–311Google Scholar
  70. Gerald FL, Blum UB, Fiscus EL (1992) Short-term effects of ferulic acid anion uptake and water relations in cucumber seedlings. J Exp Bot 43:649–655Google Scholar
  71. Gianfreda L, Rao MA (2014) Enzymes in agricultural sciences. OMICS Group International, FosterGoogle Scholar
  72. Gil V, Macleod AJ (1980) Studies on glucosinolates degradation in Lepidium sativum seed extract. Phytochem 19:1369–1374. Google Scholar
  73. Gonzalez VM, Kazimir J, Nimbal C, Weston LA, Cheniae GM (1997) Inhibition of a photosystem II electron transfer reaction by the natural product sorgoleone. J Agric Food Chem 45:1415–1421. Google Scholar
  74. Gregory LE, Mandava NB (1982) The activity and interaction of brassinolide and gibberellic acid in mung bean epicotyls. Plant Physiol 54:239–243Google Scholar
  75. Grove D, Gayland F, William K (1979) Brassinolide, a plant growth-promoting steroid isolated from Brassica napus L. pollen. Nature 281:216–217Google Scholar
  76. Hallak AMG, Davide LC, Souza IF (1999) Effect of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) root exudates on the cell cycle of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root. Genet Mol Biol 22:95–99. Google Scholar
  77. Hao J, Xiaorong S, Baofan Z (1991) Ripening effect of brassinolide on tomatoes. J Shenyang Agric Uni 22(4):327–330Google Scholar
  78. Haramoto ER, Gallandt ER (2005) Brassica cover cropping: 1. Effects on weed and crop establishment. Weed Sci 53:695–701Google Scholar
  79. Harper JR, Balke NE (1981) Characterization of the inhibition of K+ absorption in oat roots by salicylic acid. Plant Physiol 68:1349–1353Google Scholar
  80. Hopkins RJ, van Dam NM, van Loon JJA (2009) Role of glucosinolates ininsect-plant relationships and multitrophic interactions. Annu Rev Entomol 54:57–83Google Scholar
  81. Hussain S, Khaliq A, Bajwa AA, Matloob A, Areeb A, Ashraf U, Hafeez A, Imran M (2017) Crop growth and yield losses in wheat due to little seed canary grass infestation differ with weed densities and changes in environment. Planta Daninha 35:e017162328Google Scholar
  82. Iqbal MA (2011) Response of canola (Brassica napus L.) to foliar application of moringa (Moringa olifera L.) and brassica (Brassica napus L.) water extracts. MSc Thesis, Dept of Agro, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, PakGoogle Scholar
  83. Jabran K, Cheema ZA, Farooq M, Basra SMA, Hussain M, Rehman H (2008) Tank mixing of allelopathic crop water extracts with pendimethalin helps in the management of weeds in canola (Brassica napus) field. Int J Agric Biol 10:293–296Google Scholar
  84. Jabran K, Cheema ZA, Farooq M, Hussain M (2010) Lower doses of pendimethalin mixed with allelopathic crop water extracts for weed management in canola (Brassica napus). Int J Agric Biol 12:335–340Google Scholar
  85. Jabran K, Mahajan G, Sardana V, Chauhan BS (2015) Allelopathy for weed control in agricultural systems. Crop Prot 72:57–65Google Scholar
  86. Jabran K, Mahmood K, Melander M, Bajwa AA, Kudsk P (2017) Weed dynamics and management in wheat. Adv Agron 145:97–166Google Scholar
  87. Jahangeer A (2011) Response of maize (Zea mays L.) to foliar application of three plant water extracts. MSc Thesis, Dept of Agro, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  88. James D, Devaraj S, Bellur P, Lakkanna S, Vicini J, Boddupalli S (2012) Novel concepts of broccoli sulforaphanes and disease: induction of phase II antioxidant and detoxification enzymes by enhanced-glucoraphanin broccoli. Nutr Rev 70(11):654–665Google Scholar
  89. Jamil M, Cheema ZA, Mushtaq MN, Farooq M, Cheema MA (2009) Alternative control of wild oat and canary grass in wheat fields by allelopathic plant water extracts. Agron Sustain Dev 29:475–482Google Scholar
  90. Jeffery EH, Brown AF, Kurilich AC, Keck AS, Matusheski N, Klein BP, Juvik JA (2003) Variation in content of bioactive components in broccoli. J Food Comp Anal 16(3):323–330Google Scholar
  91. Jeyakumar P, Velu G, Rajendran C, Amutha R, Savery MA, Chidambaram S (2008) Varied responses of black gram (Vigna mungo) to certain foliar applied chemicals and plant growth regulators. Legume Res 31(2):110–113Google Scholar
  92. Jones HS, Vandoren M, Lockwood T (1996) Brassinolide application to Lepidium sativum seeds and the effects on seedling growth. J Plant Growth Regul 15(2):63–66Google Scholar
  93. Keating KI (1999) Allelopathy: principles, procedures, processes, and promises for biological control. Adv Agron 67:141–231Google Scholar
  94. Khaliq A, Matloob A, Farooq M, Mushtaq MN, Khan MB (2011) Effect of crop residues applied isolated or in combination on the germination and seedling growth of Horse Purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum). Planta Daninha 29(1):121–128Google Scholar
  95. Khaliq A, Matloob A, Aslam F, Mushtaq MN, Khan MB (2012) Toxic action of aqueous wheat straw extract on horse purslane. Planta Daninha 30:269–278Google Scholar
  96. Khaliq A, Matloob A, Khan MB, Tanveer A (2013) Differential suppression of rice weeds by allelopathic plant aqueous extracts. Planta Daninha 31:21–28. Google Scholar
  97. Khanh TD, Chung MI, Xuan TD, Tawata S (2005) The exploitation of crop allelopathy in sustainable agricultural production. J Agron Crop Sci 191:172–184Google Scholar
  98. Kim KS (1989) Effects of plant growth regulator, brassinolide, on seedling growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Res Rep Rural Dev Adm 31(1):49–53Google Scholar
  99. Kruse M, Strandberg M, Strandberg B (2000) Ecological Effects of Allelopathic Plants-a Review, 66. National Environmental Research Institute. NERI, Technical Report No. 315, Silkeborg.
  100. Lankau R (2008) A chemical trait creates a genetic trade-off between intra-and interspecific competitive ability. Ecology 89(5):1181–1187Google Scholar
  101. Larkin RP, Griffin TS (2007) Control of soilborne diseases of potato using Brassica green manures. Crop Prot 26:1067–1077Google Scholar
  102. Li X, Kushad MM (2004) Correlation of glucosinolate content to myrosinase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). J Agri Food Chem 52(23):6950–6955Google Scholar
  103. Li S, Wang P, Yuan W (2010) Induced endogenous autotoxicity in Camptotheca. Front Biosci 2:1196–1210Google Scholar
  104. Li S, Wang P, Yuan W, Su Z, Bullard SH (2016) Endocidal regulation of secondary metabolites in the producing organisms. Sci Rep 6:29315Google Scholar
  105. Malézieux E, Crozat Y, Dupraz C, Laurans M, Makowski D, Ozier-Lafontaine H, RapidelS B, de Tourdonnet S, Valantin-Morison M (2009) Mixing plant species in cropping systems: concepts, tools and models: a review. Sustain Agri 329–353Google Scholar
  106. Malik MS, Norsworthy JK, Culpepper AS, Riley MB, Bridges W (2008) Use of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) and rye cover crops for weed suppression in sweet corn. Weed Sci 56:588–595Google Scholar
  107. Mandava NB (1988) Plant growth promoting brassinosteroids. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 39:23–52Google Scholar
  108. Mandava NB, Sasse JM, Yopp JH (1981) Brassinolide, a growth-promoting steroidal lactone: activity in selected gibberellin and cytokinin bioassays. Physiol Plant 53:453–461Google Scholar
  109. Mayton HS, Olivier C, Vaughn SF, Loria R (1996) Correlation of fungicidal activity of Brassica species with allyl isothiocyanate production in macerated leaf tissue. J Phytopathol 86:267–271Google Scholar
  110. Mayumi K, Shibaoka H (1995) A possible double role for brassinolide in the reorientation of cortical microtubules in the epidermal cells of azuki bean [Vigna angularis] epicotyls. Plant Cell Physiol 36(1):173–181Google Scholar
  111. Meazza G, Scheffler BE, Tellez MR, Rimando AM, Romagni JG, Duke SO (2002) The inhibitory activity of natural products on plant p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. Phytochem 60:281–288. Google Scholar
  112. Mersie W, Singh M (1993) Phenolic acids affect photosynthesis and protein synthesis by isolated leaf cells of velvet-leaf. J Chem Ecol 19:1293–1301Google Scholar
  113. Mitchell JW, Mandava N, Worley JF, Plimmer JR, Smith MV (1970) Brassins-a new family of plant hormones from rape pollen. Nature 225:1065–1066Google Scholar
  114. Mithen R (2001) Glucosinolates and the degradation products. In: Callow J (ed) Adv in Bota Res. Academic Press, New York, pp 214–262Google Scholar
  115. Mori K (1980) Synthesis of a brassinolide analog with high plant growth promoting activity. Agric Biol Chem 44:1211–1212Google Scholar
  116. Narwal SS (1994) Allelopathy in crop production. Scientific Publishers, JodhpurGoogle Scholar
  117. Narwal SS (2001) Crop allelopathy for weed management in sustainable agriculture. FirstEurop. Allelopathy Symp. Vigo, Spain, June 21–23Google Scholar
  118. Narwal SS (2004) Allelopathy in crop production. Scientific publishers, JodhpurGoogle Scholar
  119. Nishida N, Tamtosu S, Nagata N, Saito C, Sakai A (2005) Allelopathic effects of volatile monoterpenoids produced by Salvia leucophylla: inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in the root apical meristem of Brassica campestris seedlings. J Chem Ecol 31:1187–1203. Google Scholar
  120. Norsworthy JK, Meehan JT (2005) Herbicidal activity of eight isothiocyanates on Texas panicum (Panicum texanum), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), and sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia). Weed Sci 53:515–520Google Scholar
  121. Oerke EC, Dehne HW (2004) Safeguarding production-losses in major crops and the role of crop protection. Crop Prot 23:275–285Google Scholar
  122. Özdemir F, Bor M, Demiral T, Türkan İ (2004) Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on seed germination, seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, proline content and antioxidative system of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under salinity stress. J Plant Growth Regul 42(3):203–211. Google Scholar
  123. Petersen J, Belz R, Walker F (2001) Weed suppression by release of isothiocyanates from turnip–rape mulch. Agron J 93:37–43Google Scholar
  124. Popova IE, Morra MJ (2014) Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, andanionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 62:10687–10693Google Scholar
  125. Popova IE, Dubie JS, Morra MJ (2017) Optimization of hydrolysis conditions for release of biopesticides from glucosinolates in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed meal extracts. Indus Crops Pro 97:354–359Google Scholar
  126. Price AJ, Charron CS, Sams CE (2005) Allyl isothiocyanate and carbon dioxide produced during degradation of Brassica juncea tissue in different soil conditions. Hort Sci 40:1734–1739Google Scholar
  127. Purvis CE, Jones GPD (1990) Differential response of wheat to retain crop stubbles. II. Other factors influencing allelopathic potential: intraspecific variation. Soil type and stubble quality. Aust J Agric Res 41:243–252. Google Scholar
  128. Qayyum B, Shahbaz M, Akram NA (2007) Interactive effect of foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide and root zone salinity on morpho-physiological attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Agric Biol 9(4):584–589Google Scholar
  129. Raza MM, Khan MA, Ahmad I, Bajwa AA, Aslam H, Ullah BA, Riaz K (2015) Forest pathogens and diseases under changing climate-a review. Pak J Agric Res 28:318–337Google Scholar
  130. Rehman APK, Biswas MSA, Sardar MIK (2012) Allelopathic effect of Brassica biomass on yield of wheat. J Expt Bio Sci 3:1Google Scholar
  131. Reigosa M, Gomes AS, Ferreira AG, Borghetti F (2013) Allelopathic research in Brazil. Acta Bot Brasilica 27:629–646Google Scholar
  132. Rice EL (1984) Allelopathy, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  133. Rice AR, Johnson-Maynard JL, Thill DC, Morra MJ (2007) Vegetable crop emergence and weed control following amendment with different Brassicaceae seed meals. Renew Agric Food Sys 22(3):204–212Google Scholar
  134. Rizvi SJH, Rizvi V (1992) Exploitation of allelochemicals in improving crop productivity. In: Rizvi SJH, Rizvi V (eds) Allelop basic and App Asp. Champan & Hall, London, pp 443–472Google Scholar
  135. Rizvi SJH, Haque H, Singh VK, Rizvi V (1992) A discipline called allelopathy, pp 1–8. In: Rizvi SJH, Rizvi V (eds) Allelop basic and App Asp, Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  136. Sanchez-Moreiras AM, Weiss O, Reigosa MJ (2004) Allelopathic evidence in the Poaceae. Bot Rev 69:300–319Google Scholar
  137. Sanchez-Moreiras AM, De La Pena TC, Reigosa MJ (2008a) The natural compound benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one selectivity retards cell cycle in lettuce root meristems. Phytochem 69:2172–2179. Google Scholar
  138. Sanchez-Moreiras AM, Pedrol N, González L, Reigosa MJ (2008b) 2-(3H)-benzoxazolinone (BOA) induces loss of salt tolerance in salt-adapted plants. Plant Biol 11:582–590Google Scholar
  139. Sangeetha C, Baskar P (2015) Allelopathy in weed management: a critical review. Afr J Agric Res 10:1004–1015Google Scholar
  140. Sarmah MK, Narwal SS, Yadava JS (1992) Smothering effect of Brassica species on weeds. Proceeding first national symposium allelopathy in agroecosystems. Haryana Agricultural University, Ind society allelo, Hisar, 51–55Google Scholar
  141. Shahbaz M, Ashraf M (2007) Influence of exogenous application of brassinosteriod on growth and mineral nutrients of wheat under saline conditions. Pak J Bot 39:513–522Google Scholar
  142. Shahid MA, Balal RM, Pervez MA, Abbas T, Aqeel MA, Riaz A et al (2015) Exogenous 24-epibrassinolide elevates the salt tolerance potential of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) by improving osmotic adjustment capacity and leaf water relations. J Plant Nutr 38(7):1050–1072. Google Scholar
  143. Shahzad B, Cheema SA, Farooq M, Cheema ZA, Rehman A, Abbas T (2017) Hormetic influence of foliage applied brassica water extracts on morphological and yield attributes of bread wheat under different fertilizer regimes. Planta Daninha (In press)Google Scholar
  144. Shahzad B, Tanveer M, Che Z, Rehman A, Cheema SA, Sharma A, Zhaorong D (2018) Role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) in mediating heavy metal and pesticide induced oxidative stress in plants: a review. Ecotox Env Saf 147:935–944Google Scholar
  145. Sharma A, Kumar V, Singh R, Thukral AK, Bhardwaj R (2015) 24-Epibrassinolide induces the synthesis of phytochemicals effected by imidacloprid pesticide stress in Brassica juncea L. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 4(3):60–64Google Scholar
  146. Sharma A, Kumar V, Bhardwaj R, Thukral AK (2016) Seed pre-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide reduces the imidacloprid pesticide residues in green pods of Brassica juncea L. Toxi Envi Chem. Google Scholar
  147. Sharma A, Kumar V, Kumar R, Shahzad B, Thukral AK, Bhardwaj R (2018) Brassinosteroid-mediated pesticide detoxification in plants: a mini-review. Cogent Food Agric. Google Scholar
  148. Singh I, Shono M (2005) Physiological and molecular effects of 24-epibrassinolide, a brassinosteroid on thermotolerance of tomato. J Plant Growth Regul 47(2):111. Google Scholar
  149. Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK (2003) Allelopathic interactions and allelochemicals: new possibilities for sustainable weed manage-ment. Crit Rev Plant Sci 22:239–311Google Scholar
  150. Sirhindi G (2013) Brassinosteroids: biosynthesis and role in growth, development, and thermotolerance responses. In: Rout GR, Das AB (eds) Molecular stress physiol plants. Springer India. pp 309–349Google Scholar
  151. Sullivan P (2003) Principles of sustainable weed management of croplands. ATTRA Publications IP039Google Scholar
  152. Terakado J, Fujihara S, Goto S, Kuratani R, Suzuki Y, Yoshida S, Yoneyama T (2005) Systemic effect of a brassinosteroid on root nodule formation in soybean as revealed by the application of brassinolide and brassinazole. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 51(3):389–395Google Scholar
  153. Tesio F, Ferrero A (2011) Allelopathy, a chance for sustainable weed management. Int J Sust Dev World Ecol 17:377–389Google Scholar
  154. Toosi F, Baki BB (2011) Allelopathic potential of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.var. ensabi. Pak J Weed Sci Res 18:651–656Google Scholar
  155. Turk MA, Tawaha AM (2002) Inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of black mustard on germination and growth of lentil. Pak J Agron 1:28–30Google Scholar
  156. Turk MA, Tawaha AM (2003) Allelopathic effect of black mustard (Brassica nigra L.) on germination and growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Crop Prot 22:673–677. Google Scholar
  157. Turk MA, Lee KD, Tawaha AM (2005) Inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of black mustard on germination and growth of radish. Res J Agric Biol Sci 1:227–231Google Scholar
  158. Uddin MR, Park KW, Han SM, Pyon JY, Park SU (2012) Effects of sorgoleone allelochemicals on chlorophyll florescence and growth inhibition in weeds. Allelopathy J 30:61–70Google Scholar
  159. Upreti KK, Murti GSR (2004) Effects of brassinosteroids on growth, nodulation, phytohormone content and nitrogenase activity in French bean under water stress. Biol Planta 48(3):407–411Google Scholar
  160. Vaughan SF, Boydston RA (1997) Volatile allelochemicals released by crucifer green manures. J Chem Eco 23:2107–2116Google Scholar
  161. Vaughn S (1999) Glucosinolates as natural pesticides: agrochemicals. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  162. Wang CM, Chen HT, Li TC, Weng JH, Jhan YL, Lin SX et al (2014) The role of pentacyclic triterpenoids in the allelopathic effects of Alstonia scholaris. J Chem Ecol 40:90–98. Google Scholar
  163. Warton B, Matthiessen JN, Shackleton MA (2001) Glucosinolate content and isothiocyanate evolution—two measures of the biofumigation potential of plants. J Agric Food Chem 49:5244–5250Google Scholar
  164. Weih M, Didon UME, Rönnberg-Wästljung AC, Björkman C (2008) Integrated agricultural research and crop breeding: allelopathic weed control in cereals and long-term productivity in perennial biomass crops. Agric Syst 97(3):99–107. Google Scholar
  165. Weston LA (1996) Utilization of allelopathy for weed management in agro-ecosystems. Agron J 88:860–866Google Scholar
  166. Wezel A, Casagrande M, Celette F, Vian JF, Ferrer A, Peigné J (2014) Agroecological practices for sustainable agriculture: a review. Agron Sust Dev 34(1):1–20Google Scholar
  167. Wu FZ, Pan K, Ma FM, Wang XD (2004) Effects of ciunamic acid on photosynthesis and cell ultrastructure of cucumber seedlings. Acta Hortic Sin 31:183–188Google Scholar
  168. Xia XJ, Huang YY, Wang L, Huang LF, Yu YL, Zhou YH et al (2006) Pesticides-induced depression of photosynthesis was alleviated by 24-epibrassinolide pretreatment in Cucumis sativus L. Pestic Biochem Physiol 86(1):42–48. Google Scholar
  169. Xia XJ, Zhang Y, Wu JX, Wang JT, Zhou YH, Shi K et al (2009) Brassinosteroids promote metabolism of pesticides in Cumcumber. J Agric Food Chem 57:8406–8413Google Scholar
  170. Xu SD, Zhonghuan H, Ruoyun H (2009) Physiological effects of brassinolide on cold resistance in seedlings of Pinus bungeana. J Shenyang Agric Uni 22(2):123–127Google Scholar
  171. Yokota T, Takahashi N (1986) Transport and metabolism of brassinosteriods in rice Plant Growth Substances (ed. Bopp M), Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 129–138Google Scholar
  172. Yopp JH, Mandava NB, Sasse JM (1981) Brassinolide, a growth-promoting steroidal lactone I: activity in selected auxin bioassays. Physiol Plant 53:445–452Google Scholar
  173. Younesabadi M (2005) Study on allelopathic interference of rape- seed (Brassica napus var. belinda) on germination and growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and its dominant weeds. Proc. 4 th World Cong. Allelopathy, Aug. 2005. Wagga Wagga, Aus, 283–286Google Scholar
  174. Yu J, Morishita DW (2014) Response of seven weed species to corn gluten mealand white mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal rates. Weed Technol 28:259–265Google Scholar
  175. Yu JQ, Ye SF, Zhang MF, Hu WH (2003) Effects of root exudates and aqueous root extracts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and allelochemicals, on photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes in cucumber. Biochem Syst Ecol 32:129–139. Google Scholar
  176. Zaji B, Majd A (2011) Allelopathic potential of canola (Brassica napus L.) residues on weed suppression and yield response of maize (Zea mays L.). International conference on chemical, ecology and environmental sciences (IICCEES’ 2011)Google Scholar
  177. Zhou Y, Xia X, Yu G, Wang J, Wu J, Wang M, Yang Y, Shi K, Yu Y, Chen Z, Gan J (2015) Brassinosteroids play a critical role in the regulation of pesticide metabolism in crop plants. Sci Rep 5:9018Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shamsur Rehman
    • 1
  • Babar Shahzad
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ali Ahsan Bajwa
    • 4
    • 5
  • Saddam Hussain
    • 3
  • Abdul Rehman
    • 3
  • Sardar Alam Cheema
    • 3
  • Tasawer Abbas
    • 6
  • Asif Ali
    • 1
  • Liaqat Shah
    • 1
  • Steve Adkins
    • 4
    • 5
  • Peijin Li
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.The National Engineering Laboratory of Crop Stress Resistance Breeding, School of Life SciencesAnhui Agricultural UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.School of Land and FoodUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  3. 3.Department of AgronomyUniversity of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.School of Agriculture and Food ScienceThe University of QueenslandGattonAustralia
  5. 5.The Centre for Crop Sciences, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food InnovationThe University of QueenslandGattonAustralia
  6. 6.Department of Agronomy, College of AgricultureUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan

Personalised recommendations