Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 375–384 | Cite as

Gibberellic Acid (GA3) Inhibits ROS Increase in Chloroplasts During Dark-Induced Senescence of Pelargonium Cuttings

  • Shilo Rosenwasser
  • Eduard Belausov
  • Joseph Riov
  • Vered Holdengreber
  • Haya FriedmanEmail author


The temporal and spatial changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) during dark treatment of Pelargonium cuttings and the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on ROS levels were studied. ROS-related fluorescence was detected in mitochondria and cytoplasm of epidermal cells and in chloroplasts. By monitoring dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence, an initial decrease in ROS was observed under darkness in the epidermal cell cytoplasm and the chloroplasts, which was followed by an increase on the third day. Following 3 days under darkness, the size and the structure of the chloroplasts also changed, and they became more sensitive to illumination as judged by a higher accumulation of ROS. Pretreatment of leaves with GA3 did not prevent the structural changes in the chloroplasts, but it inhibited the increase in ROS levels in all cell compartments, including the chloroplasts. It is suggested that the inhibition of ROS increase by GA3 prevented complete disintegration of chloroplasts during dark-induced senescence and thereby enabled the maintenance of chlorophyll levels in the tissue.


Chloroplasts GA3 H2DCF-DA Reactive oxygen species Senescence 



We acknowledge the contribution from the Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel (No. 533/08). The research was supported by grant No. CB-9025-05 from BARD-Cornell.

Supplementary material

Non-treated tissue darken for 2 days (WMV 118 kb)

Non-treated tissue darken for 4 days (WMV 194 kb)

Gibberellin-treated tissue darkened for 4 days (WMV 51 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shilo Rosenwasser
    • 1
    • 3
  • Eduard Belausov
    • 2
  • Joseph Riov
    • 3
  • Vered Holdengreber
    • 4
  • Haya Friedman
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh ProduceAgricultural Research Organization (ARO), The Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Plant ScienceAgricultural Research Organization (ARO), The Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael
  3. 3.Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Quality SciencesThe Hebrew University of JerusalemRehovotIsrael
  4. 4.Department of Plant Pathology and Weed ProtectionAgricultural Research Organization (ARO), The Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael

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