Advertisement

Ciliate Uronema marinum is the causative agent of scuticociliatosis in farm raised turbot Scophthalmus maximus

  • Guangxun Du
  • Lingyun QuEmail author
  • Kun Shang
  • Chengjun Sun
  • Chen Wang
  • Ping Gao
Article
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

To identify the pathogen that causes scuticociliatosis in farmed-raised turbot Scophthalmus maximus, we isolated a ciliate from the brain tissue of an infected turbot and identified it as Uronema marinum based on morphological and molecular evidence. We then infected the turbots in artificial laboratory settings with pure cultured U. marinum. The infected turbots showed syndromes similar to those observed in naturally infected ones. Furthermore, microscopic examination and PCR detection confirmed the presence of the ciliate in the tissues of those laboratory-infected turbots. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of scuticociliatosis caused by U. marinum in farm-raised turbot S. maximus in China.

Keyword

Scophthalmus maximus scuticociliatosis histopathology Uronema marinum 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgement

The LZLP2013 is morphologically identified by Prof. HU Xiaozhong and Dr. LIU Mingjian from the Laboratory of Protozoa, Ocean University of China.

References

  1. Anderson S A, Hulston D A, McVeagh S M, Webb V L, Smith P J. 2009. In vitro culture and cryopreservation of Uronema marinum isolated from farmed New Zealand groper( Polyprion oxygeneios ). Journal of Microbiological Methods, 79(1): 62–66, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet. 2009.07.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cardoso P H M, de Carvalho Balian S, Matushima E R, De Pádua S B, Martins M L. 2017. First report of scuticociliatosis caused by Uronema sp. in ornamental reef fish imported into Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria, 26(4): 491–495, https://doi.org/10.1590/s1984–29612017031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cawthorn R J, Lynn D H, Despres B, MacMillan R, Maloney R, Loughlin M, Bayer R. 1996. Description of Anophryoides haemophila n. sp.(Scuticociliatida: Orchitophryidae), a pathogen of American lobsters Homarus americanus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 24(2): 143–148, https://doi.org/10.3354/dao024143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheung P J, Nigrelli R F, Ruggieri G D. 1980. Studies on the morphology of Uronema marinum Dujardin(Ciliatea: Uronematidae) with a description of the histopathology of the infection in marine fishes. Journal of Fish Diseases, 3(4): 295–303, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365–2761.1980. tb00400.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Corliss J O. 1979. The Ciliated Protozoa. Characterization, Classification and Guide to the Literature. 2 nd edn. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  6. Dyková I, Tyml T, Kostka M, Pecková H. 2010. Strains of Uronema marinum(Scuticociliatia) co–isolated with amoebae of the genus Neoparamoeba. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 89(1): 71–77, https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Edgar R C. 2004. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research, 32(5): 1 792–1 797, https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkh340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Figueras A, Robledo D, Corvelo A, Hermida M, Pereiro P, Rubiolo J A, Gómez–Garrido J, Carreté L, Bello X, Gut M, Gut I G, Marcet–Houben M, Forn–Cuní G, Galán B, García J L, Abal–Fabeiro J L, Pardo B G, Taboada X, Fernández C, Vlasova A, Hermoso–Pulido A, Guigó R, Álvarez–Dios J A, Gómez–Tato A, Viñas A, Maside X, Gabaldón T, Novoa B, Bouza C, Alioto T, Martínez P. 2016. Whole genome sequencing of turbot( Scophthalmus maximus; Pleuronectiformes): a fish adapted to demersal life. DNA Research, 23(3): 181–192, https://doi.org/10. 1093/dnares/dsw007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Harikrishnan R, Balasundaram C, Heo M S. 2010. Scuticociliatosis and its recent prophylactic measures in aquaculture with special reference to South Korea: taxonomy, diversity and diagnosis of scuticociliatosis: part I Control strategies of scuticociliatosis: part II. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 29(1): 15–31, https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.fsi.2010.02.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Iglesias R, Paramá A, Alvarez M F, Leiro J, Fernández J, Sanmartín M L. 2001. Philasterides dicentrarchi(Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) as the causative agent of scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot Scophthalmus maximus in Galicia(NW Spain). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 46(1): 47–55, https://doi.org/10.3354/dao046047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jee B Y, Kim Y C, Park M S. 2001. Morphology and biology of parasite responsible for scuticociliatosis of cultured olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 47(1): 49–55, https://doi.org/10.3354/dao047049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim S M, Cho J B, Kim S K, Nam Y K, Kim K H. 2004. Occurrence of scuticociliatosis in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus by Phiasterides dicentrarchi(Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 62(3): 233–238, https://doi.org/10.3354/dao062233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Medlin L, Elwood H J, Stickel S, Sogin M L. 1988. The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S–like rRNA–coding regions. Gene, 71(2): 491–499, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378–1119(88)90066–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ofelio C, Blanco A, Roura Á, Pintado J, Pascual S, Planas M. 2013. Isolation and molecular identification of the scuticociliate Porpostoma notata Moebius, 1888 from moribund reared Hippocampus hippocampus(L.) seahorses, by amplification of the SSU rRNA gene sequences. Journal of Fish Diseases, 37(12): 1 061–1 065, https://doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Piazzon M C, Leiro J, Lamas J. 2013. Fish immunity to scuticociliate parasites. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 41(2): 248–256, https://doi.org/10.1016/j. dci.2013.05.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Qin L, Wang Y G, Zhang L J, Dai, J X. 2007. Histopathology of turbot associated with Mesanophrys carcini parasite. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 31(5): 618–628.(in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  17. Ramos M F, Costa A R, Barandela T, Saraiva A, Rodrigues P N. 2007. Scuticociliate infection and pathology in cultured turbot Scophthalmus maximus from the north of Portugal. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 74(3): 249–253, https://doi.org/10.3354/dao074249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Song W B, Warren A, Hu X Z. 2009. Free–living Ciliates in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Science Press, Beijing, China. p.171–175.(in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Stidworthy M F, Garner M M, Bradway D S, Westfall B D, Joseph B, Repetto S, Guglielmi E, Schmidt–Posthaus H, Thornton S M. 2014. Systemic Scuticociliatosis( Philasterides dicentrarchi ) in sharks. Veterinary Pathology, 51(3): 628–632, https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985813492800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. 2013. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis Version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30(12): 2 725–2 729, https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thompson Jr J C, Moewus L. 1964. Miamiensis avidus n. g., n. sp., a marine facultative parasite in the ciliate order Hymenostomatida. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 11(3): 378–381, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1550–7408.1964. tb01766.x.Google Scholar
  22. Turgay E, Steinum T M, Gül A E, Karataş S. 2015. An outbreak of scuticociliatosis in cultured common dentex( Dentex dentex ) in turkey. Bulletin — European Association of Fish Pathologists, 35(3): 104–111.Google Scholar
  23. Wang Y G, Chen J J, Qin L. 2005. Mesanphrys carcini causing severe scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot Scophthalmus maximus in China. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 12(5): 594–601.(in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  24. Whang I, Kang H S, Lee J. 2013. Identification of scuticociliates( Pseudocohnilembus persalinus, P. longisetus, Uronema marinum and Miamiensis avidus ) based on the cox1 sequence. Parasitology International, 62(1): 7–13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2012.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wilbert N. 1975. Eine verbesserte Technik der Protargolimprägnation für Ciliaten. Mikrokosmos, 64: 171–179.Google Scholar
  26. Zhang Z, Wang Y G, Qin L, Li Q F. 2006. Epizootic investigation and study on challenge experiment of fin rot disease in cultured turbot( Scophthalmus maximus ). Fisheries Science, 25(6): 271–274.(in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  27. Zhou L, Zhan W B, Song W B, Song C H. 2000. Observations on the histopathology of the external ulcerative disease of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Journal of Ocean University of Qingdao, 30(4): 593–597.(in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guangxun Du
    • 1
  • Lingyun Qu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kun Shang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Chengjun Sun
    • 1
  • Chen Wang
    • 1
  • Ping Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.First Institute of OceanographyMinistry of Natural Resources (MNR)QingdaoChina
  2. 2.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production ProcessesQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  3. 3.College of Fisheries and Life ScienceDalian Ocean UniversityDalianChina

Personalised recommendations