Journal of Oceanology and Limnology

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 1868–1878 | Cite as

Long-term variation of storm surge-associated waves in the Bohai Sea

  • Yanping Wang
  • Yongling LiuEmail author
  • Xinyan Mao
  • Yutao Chi
  • Wensheng Jiang


When investigating the long-term variation of wave characteristics as associated with storm surges in the Bohai Sea, the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model and ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model were coupled to simulate 32 storm surges between 1985 and 2014. This simulation was validated by reproducing three actual wave processes, showing that the simulated significant wave height (SWH) and mean wave period agreed well with the actual measurements. In addition, the long-term variations in SWH, patterns in SWH extremes along the Bohai Sea coast, the 100-year return period SWH extreme distribution, and waves conditional probability distribution were calculated and analyzed. We find that the trend of SWH extremes in most of the coastal stations was negative, among which the largest trend was −0.03 m/a in the western part of Liaodong Bay. From the 100-year return period of the SWH distribution calculated in the Gumbel method, we find that the SWH extremes associated with storm surges decreased gradually from the center of the Bohai Sea to the coast. In addition, the joint probability of wave and surge for the entire Bohai Sea in 100-year return period was determined by the Gumbel logistic method. We therefore, assuming a minimum surge of one meter across the entire Bohai Sea, obtained the spatial SWH distribution. The conclusions of this study are significant for offshore and coastal engineering design.


significant wave height (SWH) storm surge long-term variation coupled models Bohai Sea 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akpınar A, Bingölbali B, van Vledder G P. 2016. Wind and wave characteristics in the Black Sea based on the SWAN wave model forced with the CFSR winds. Ocean Eng., 126: 276–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhaskaran P K, Nayak S, Bonthu S R, Murty P L N, Sen D. 2013. Performance and validation of a coupled parallel ADCIRC-SWAN model for THANE cyclone in the Bay of Bengal. Environ. Fluid Mech., 13(6): 601–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Booij N, Ris R C, Holthuijsen L H. 1999. A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation. J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans, 104(C4): 7 649–7 666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deng Z Q, Zhou L M, Wu L Y, Guo P F. 2007. Numerical computation of wave heights of multiyear return periods in the Bohai Sea. Trans. Oceanol. Limnol., (S1): 8–14. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  5. Dietrich J C, Tanaka S, Westerink J J, Dawson C N, Luettich Jr R A, Zijlema M, Holthuijsen L H, Smith J M, Westerink L G, Westerink H J. 2012. Performance of the unstructured-mesh, SWAN+ADCIRC model in computing hurricane waves and surge. J. Sci. Comput., 52(2): 468–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dietrich J C, Zijlema M, Westerink J J, Holthuijsen L H, Dawson C, Luettich R A, Jensen R E, Smith J M, Stelling G S, Stone G W. 2011. Modeling hurricane waves and storm surge using integrally-coupled, scalable computations. Coast Eng., 58(1): 45–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Egbert G D, Bennett A F, Foreman M G G. 1994. TOPEX/POSEIDON tides estimated using a global inverse model. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans., 99(C12): 24 821–24 852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Feng J L, von Storch H, Weisse R, Jiang W S. 2016a. Changes of storm surges in the Bohai Sea derived from a numerical model simulation, 1961–2006. Ocean Dyn., 66(10): 1 301–1 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feng S Z. 1982. Introduction to Storm Surge. Science Press, Beijing. 241p. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Feng X B, Zheng J H, Yan Y X. 2012. Wave spectra assimilation in typhoon wave modeling for the East China Sea. Coast Eng., 69: 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feng X R, Li M J, Yin B S, Yang D Z, Yang H W. 2018. Study of storm surge trends in typhoon-prone coastal areas based on observations and surge-wave coupled simulations. Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf., 68: 272–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feng X R, Yin B S, Yang D Z. 2016b. Development of an unstructured-grid wave-current coupled model and its application. Ocean Model., 104: 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jelesnianski C P. 1965. A numerical calculation of storm tides induced by a tropical storm impinging on a continental shelf. Mon. Wea. Rev., 93(6): 343–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ji C, Zhang Q H, Wu Y S. 2018. An empirical formula for maximum wave setup based on a coupled wave-current model. Ocean Eng., 147: 215–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li X, Wang Z F, Wu S Q, Dong S, Jia J, Zhang X S, Wu H. 2016. Application of the surface wave and storm surge coupled model in Tianjin coastal areas. Mar. Sci. Bull., 35(6): 657–665. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  16. Lü X C, Yuan D K, Ma X D, Tao J H. 2014. Wave characteristics analysis in Bohai Sea based on ECMWF wind field. Ocean Eng., 91: 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Luettich R A, Westerink J J. 2004. Formulation and numerical implementation of the 2D/3D ADCIRC finite element model version 44.XX. Accessed on 2019-06-04.
  18. Mazaheri S, Kamranzad B, Hajivalie F. 2013. Modification of 32 years ECMWF wind field using QuikSCAT data for wave hindcasting in Iranian Seas. J. Coast. Res., 65(sp1): 344–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sun X J, Zhou L M, Wang A F, Wang Z F, Wu L Y. 2013. Study on the wave extreme parameters of the Bohai Sea with the numerical simulation using SWAN. Mar. Sci. Bull., 15(1): 16–26.Google Scholar
  20. Tolman H L. 1991. Effects of tides and storm surges on North Sea wind waves. J. Phys. Oceangr., 21(6): 766–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang D S. 2013. Numerical Study on Characteristics of Water Exchange and Sediment Transport in Bohai Bay. Tianjin University, Tianjin. 86p. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  22. Wang Y P, Mao X Y, Jiang W S. 2018. Long-term hazard analysis of destructive storm surges using the ADCIRC-SWAN model: a case study of Bohai Sea, China. Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf., 73: 52–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Westerink J J, Luettich R A, Baptists A M, Scheffner N W, Farrar P. 1992. Tide and storm surge predictions using finite element model. J. Hydraul. Eng., 118(10): 1 373–1 390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xia B, Zhang Q H, Yang H. 2006. Influence of hydrodynamic factors on nearshore wind waves—the southwest coast of the Bohai Bay as an example. Mar. Sci. Bull., 25(5): 1–8. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  25. Xie D M, Zou Q P, Cannon J W. 2016. Application of SWAN+ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot’s Day storm. Water Sci. Eng., 9(1): 33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Xin B H. 1991. Introduction to High Winds in the Yellow and Bohai Seas. China Meteorological Press, Beijing. 192p. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  27. Yan J Y, Chen C J, Zhang X Z, Huang A F. 1993. China Offshore Climate. Science Press, Beijing. 600p. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Yang G S. 2000. Historical change and future trends of storm surge disaster in China’s coastal area. J. Nat. Dis., 9(3): 23–30. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  29. Yang H T, Tian S Z. 1993. The Compilation of 40 Years of Marine Disasters in China (1949–1990). Ocean Press- Beijing. 288p. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Ying M, Zhang W, Yu H, Lu X Q, Feng J X, Fan Y X, Zhu Y T, Chen D Q. 2014. An overview of the China meteorological administration tropical cyclone database. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31(2): 287–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhao P, Jiang W S. 2011. A numerical study of storm surges caused by cold-air outbreaks in the Bohai Sea. Nat. Hazards., 59(1): 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanping Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yongling Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xinyan Mao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yutao Chi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wensheng Jiang
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Physical Oceanography LaboratoryOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.College of Oceanic and Atmospheric SciencesOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  3. 3.Laboratory of Marine Environment and EcologyOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations