Domestication of marine microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica to freshwater medium and the physiological responses
Marine microalga Nannochl oropsis oceanica LAMB0001 were domesticated (~730 generations, ~two days each) to adapt freshwater BG11 medium. A number of freshwater medium adapted colonyderived strains were obtained. The strains were verifi ed phylogenetically to be N. oceanica LAMB0001 based on the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. Freshwater-medium adapted strain (FA1) grew faster in the BG11 medium prepared with freshwater than wild-type N. oceanica grew in f/2 medium prepared with seawater. We assumed that (1) the expression patterns of the genes that expressed diff erentially between FA1 and the wild-type N. oceanica exposing to the BG11 medium (WT-F) have been reprogrammed; (2) the physiological processes in which these genes involved have been modifi ed; and (3) a Gene Ontology (GO) term or a KEGG pathway enriched by DEGs between FA1 and WT-F has been up- or down-regulated if it was enriched simultaneously by up- or down-regulated DEGs between FA1 and WT-F, respectively. Under these assumptions, we found that FA1 reprogrammed the expression patterns of a set of genes that involved in cell adhesion, membrane and membrane integrity, material transportation, cell movement, and cellular signaling network. These changes in cellular functions and metabolic pathways indicate that the microalga modifi ed its gene expression pattern in a wide function range and at a high regulation rank in order to adapt to the freshwater medium. It is feasible to domesticate marine microalgae to a freshwater habitat, which may aid to modify their cultivation performances.
Key wordNannochloropsis oceanica domestication acclimation adaptation genetic variation
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