Seasonal phenology of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney) in Jiaozhou Bay and adjacent coastal Yellow Sea, China
- 115 Downloads
Seasonal variations in numerical abundance, cell diameter and population carbon biomass of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans were studied for 10 years from 2004 to 2013 in Jiaozhou Bay and adjacent coastal Yellow Sea, China, and their ecological functions were evaluated. In both areas, N. scintillans occurred throughout the year and demonstrated an essentially similar seasonality; the cell abundance increased rapidly from the winter minimum to an annual peak in late spring and early summer, and decreased gradually toward the autumn-winter minimum. The peak abundance differed by years, and there was no consistent trend in long-term numerical variations. The cell diameter also showed a seasonal fluctuation, being larger in spring and early summer than the other seasons. Estimated carbon biomass of N. scintillans population reached to a peak as high as 90.3 mg C/m3, and occasionally exceed over phytoplankton and copepod biomass. Our results demonstrate that N. scintillans in northwestern Yellow Sea displays the seasonal phenology almost identical to the populations in other temperate regions, and play important trophic roles as a heterotroph to interact with sympatric phytoplankton and copepods.
Keywordcell size biomass copepods phytoplankton ZooScan
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
We sincerely thank Prof. S. Uye, Hiroshima University, for investing his time and effort in revising this manuscript. We are grateful for all the staff of Jiaozhou Bay Marine Ecosystem Research Station for their valuable helps with field work and collecting the samples. Thanks are due also to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions on the manuscript.
- Al-Azri A, Al-Hashmi K, Goes J, Gomes H, Rushdi A I, Al-Habsi H, Al-Khusaibi S, Al-Kindi R, Al-Azri N. 2007. Seasonality of the bloom-forming heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans in the Gulf of Oman in relation to environmental condition. International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography, 2 (1): 51–60.Google Scholar
- Ara K, Nakamura S, Takahashi R, Shiomoto A, Hiromi J. 2013. Seasonal variability of the red tide-forming heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans in the neritic area of Sagami Bay, Japan: its role in the nutrientenvironment and aquatic ecosystem. Plankton and Benthos Research, 8 (1): 9–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Elbrächter M, Qi Y Z. 1998. Aspects of Noctiluca (Dinophyceae) population dynamics. In: Anderson D M, Cembella A D, HallegraeffG M eds. Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms. Springer Verlag, Berlin. p.315–335.Google Scholar
- Gai J J, Jiao X M, Ni J D, Zou H H. 2012. The characteristics of spatial distribution of Noctiluca in the Haizhou Bay. Journal of Aquacuture, 33 (10): 13–16. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Mikaelyan A S, Malej A, Shiganova T A, Turk V, Sivkovitch A E, Musaeva E I, Kogovšek T, Lukasheva T A. 2014. Populations of the red tide forming dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney): a comparison between the Black Sea and the northern Adriatic Sea. Harmful Algae, 33: 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mohamed Z A, Mesaad I. 2007. First report on Noctiluca scintillans blooms in the Red Sea offthe coasts of Saudi Arabia: consequences of eutrophication. Oceanologia, 49 (3): 337–351.Google Scholar
- Mohanty A K, Satpathy K K, Sahu G, Sasmal S K, Sahu B K, Panigrahy R C. 2007. Red tide of Noctiluca scintillans and its impact on the coastal water quality of the nearshore waters, offthe Rushikulya River, Bay of Bengal. Current Science, 93 (5): 616–618.Google Scholar
- Parsons T R, Maita Y, Lalli C M. 1984. A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis. Pergamon Press, New York. p.3–122.Google Scholar
- Qi Y Z, Zhang Z, Hong Y. 1993. Occurrence of red tides on the coasts of China. In: Smayda T J, Shimizu Y eds. Toxic Phytoplankton Bloom in the Sea. Elsevier Science Pulishers, the Netherlands. p.43–46.Google Scholar
- Sato N E, Hernández D, Viñas M D. 2010. Feeding habits of Noctiluca scintillans in coastal waters offBuenos Aires Province, Argentina. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 38 (3): 403–412.Google Scholar
- Schultes S, Lopes R M. 2009. Laser optical plankton counter and zooscan intercomparison in tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 7 (11): 771–784.Google Scholar
- Sulochanan B, Dineshbabu A P, Saravanan R, Bhat G S, Lavanya S. 2014. Occurrence of Noctiluca scintillans bloom offMangalore in the Arabian Sea. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 61 (1): 42–48.Google Scholar
- Sun X X, Sun S, Wu Y L, Zhang Y S, Zheng S. 2011c. Longterm changes of phytoplankton community structure in the Jiaozhou Bay. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 42 (5): 639–646. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Tada K, Morishita M. 1997. The changes of environmental chemical conditions and biomass on lower tropic levels in a coastal bay. Tech. Bull. Fac. Agric. Kagawa Univ., 49 (1): 35–47.Google Scholar
- Tada K, Pithakpol S, Montani S. 2004. Seasonal variation in the abundance of Noctiluca scintillans in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Plankton Biology and Ecology, 51 (1): 7–14.Google Scholar
- Umani S F, Beran A, Parlato S, Virgilio D, Zollet T, De Olazabal A, Lazzarini B, Cabrini M. 2004. Noctiluca scintillans MACARTNEY in the Northern Adriatic Sea: long-term dynamics, relationships with temperature and eutrophication, and role in the food web. Journal of Plankton Research, 26 (5): 545–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wu Y L, Sun S, Zhang Y S. 2005. Long-term change of environment and it’s influence on phytoplankton community structure in Jiaozhou Bay. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 36 (6): 487–498. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Zhang W C, Zhang C X, Xiao T. 2009. Role of microzooplankton in marine planktonic ecosystem. Advances in Earth Science, 24 (11): 1 195–1 201.Google Scholar