Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Nonlinear photoacoustic response of s-tetrazine as an important azadiene pigment

  • 32 Accesses


Photoacoustic (PA) properties of a familiar and important azadiene pigment, 3,6-dichloro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DCT), are studied in toluene as solvent. Different aspects of PA signals of this pigment are compared in various frequencies of the produced sonic waves. Using a focused laser beam with 450-nm wavelength and irradiation of 300 mW, audible sonic waves with 15,500-Hz frequency are created in solvents with high densities of DCT. In low concentrations, where the laser beam transmitted from the cell, dense diffraction rings pattern are observed, which is attributed to the PA properties of this pigment. For the first time, simultaneous study of the diffraction rings pattern, optical PA z-scan, and Fourier transform analyzes results in a more comprehensive understanding of the PA phenomenon. In addition, a new method based on diffraction rings number is presented that could lead to the estimation of non-linear optical phase changes. Moreover, the audible PA signals, as a non-linear phenomenon, could be applied as a density sensor for the solution or intensity sensor for the laser beam.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Scheme 1
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. 1.

    A.R. Fisher, A.J. Schissler, J.C. Schotland, Phys. Rev. E 76, 036604 (2007)

  2. 2.

    F. Kong, Y.C. Chen, O. Loyd Harriet, H. Silverman Ronald, H. Ham Kim, J.M. Cannata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 033902 (2009)

  3. 3.

    L.V. Wang, H.I. Wu, Biomedical Optics-Principles and Imaging (Wiley, New York, 2007)

  4. 4.

    G. Muzio, A. Alippi, A. Bettucci, F. Farrelly, M. Germano, Ultrasonics 36, 553–557 (1998)

  5. 5.

    E. Koushki, A. Farzaneh, Opt. Commun. 285, 1390–1393 (2012)

  6. 6.

    S. Salmani, M.H. MajlesAra, M.S. Zakerhamidi, E. Safari, Dyes Pigm. 125, 132–135 (2016)

  7. 7.

    J.W. Kim, E.I. Galanzha, E.V. Shashkov, H. Moon, V.P. Zharov, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 688–694 (2009)

  8. 8.

    R. Ragu, P.S. Latha Mageshwari, M. Akilan, J.P. Angelena, S. Jerome Das, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 30, 1670–1676 (2019)

  9. 9.

    W. Li, X. Chen, Nanomedicine (London) 10, 299–320 (2015)

  10. 10.

    E. Parvizi, R. Tayebee, E. Koushki, M.F. Abdizadeh, B. Maleki, P. Audebert, L. Galmiche, RSC Adv. 9, 23818–23831 (2019)

  11. 11.

    R. Mohammadzadeh Kakhki, R. Tayebee, S. Hedayat, Appl. Organomet. Chem. 32, 4033 (2018)

  12. 12.

    Y. Qu, P. Pander, A. Bucinskas, M. Vasylieva, Y. Tian, F. Miomandre, F.B. Dias, G. Clavier, P. Data, P. Audebert, Chem. A Euro. J. 25, 2457–2462 (2018)

  13. 13.

    R. Tayebee, B. Maleki, J. Iran. Chem. Soc. 14, 1179–1188 (2017)

  14. 14.

    R. Tayebee, S. Tizabi, Chin. J. Catal. 33, 962–969 (2012)

  15. 15.

    E. Koushki, B. Maleki, Dyes Pigm. 164, 82–86 (2019)

  16. 16.

    O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 5th edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2010)

  17. 17.

    R.W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd edn. (Academic Press Inc, New York, 2007)

  18. 18.

    P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, J. Thomas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 041116 (2013)

  19. 19.

    A. Pinner, A. Salomon, B. Gobel, Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 30, 1871–1890 (1897)

  20. 20.

    D.J. Min, F. Miomandre, P. Audebert, J.E. Kwon, S.Y. Park, ChemSusChem 12, 503–510 (2019)

  21. 21.

    M. Tutak, A. Disli, A. Alicilar, Asian J. Chem. 21, 6513 (2009)

  22. 22.

    M. Sheikbahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990)

  23. 23.

    E. Koushki, A. Farzaneh, S.H. Mousavi, Appl. Phys. B 99, 565–570 (2010)

  24. 24.

    C.M. Nascimento, M. Alencar, S. Chavez Cerda, M. Da Silva, M.R. Meneghetti, J.M. Hichmann, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 947–951 (2006)

  25. 25.

    P.N. Prasad, D.J. Williams, Introduction to Non-linear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991)

  26. 26.

    S.H. Mousavi, E. Koushki, H. Haratizadeh, J. Mol. Liq. 153, 124–128 (2010)

  27. 27.

    L. Hou, M. Yorulmaz, N.R. Verhart, M. Orrit, Explosive formation and dynamics of vapor nanobubbles around a continuously heated gold nanosphere. New J. Phys. 17, 013050 (2015)

Download references


Deep thanks to prof. Pierre Audebert for helpful comments and providing DCT. Partial financial support from the Research Council of Hakim Sabzevari University is greatly appreciated.

Author information

Correspondence to E. Koushki.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Koushki, E., Tayebee, R. & Esmaeili, M. Nonlinear photoacoustic response of s-tetrazine as an important azadiene pigment. Appl. Phys. B 126, 36 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-020-7384-8

Download citation