Photoacoustic (PA) properties of a familiar and important azadiene pigment, 3,6-dichloro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DCT), are studied in toluene as solvent. Different aspects of PA signals of this pigment are compared in various frequencies of the produced sonic waves. Using a focused laser beam with 450-nm wavelength and irradiation of 300 mW, audible sonic waves with 15,500-Hz frequency are created in solvents with high densities of DCT. In low concentrations, where the laser beam transmitted from the cell, dense diffraction rings pattern are observed, which is attributed to the PA properties of this pigment. For the first time, simultaneous study of the diffraction rings pattern, optical PA z-scan, and Fourier transform analyzes results in a more comprehensive understanding of the PA phenomenon. In addition, a new method based on diffraction rings number is presented that could lead to the estimation of non-linear optical phase changes. Moreover, the audible PA signals, as a non-linear phenomenon, could be applied as a density sensor for the solution or intensity sensor for the laser beam.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
A.R. Fisher, A.J. Schissler, J.C. Schotland, Phys. Rev. E 76, 036604 (2007)
F. Kong, Y.C. Chen, O. Loyd Harriet, H. Silverman Ronald, H. Ham Kim, J.M. Cannata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 033902 (2009)
L.V. Wang, H.I. Wu, Biomedical Optics-Principles and Imaging (Wiley, New York, 2007)
G. Muzio, A. Alippi, A. Bettucci, F. Farrelly, M. Germano, Ultrasonics 36, 553–557 (1998)
E. Koushki, A. Farzaneh, Opt. Commun. 285, 1390–1393 (2012)
S. Salmani, M.H. MajlesAra, M.S. Zakerhamidi, E. Safari, Dyes Pigm. 125, 132–135 (2016)
J.W. Kim, E.I. Galanzha, E.V. Shashkov, H. Moon, V.P. Zharov, Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 688–694 (2009)
R. Ragu, P.S. Latha Mageshwari, M. Akilan, J.P. Angelena, S. Jerome Das, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 30, 1670–1676 (2019)
W. Li, X. Chen, Nanomedicine (London) 10, 299–320 (2015)
E. Parvizi, R. Tayebee, E. Koushki, M.F. Abdizadeh, B. Maleki, P. Audebert, L. Galmiche, RSC Adv. 9, 23818–23831 (2019)
R. Mohammadzadeh Kakhki, R. Tayebee, S. Hedayat, Appl. Organomet. Chem. 32, 4033 (2018)
Y. Qu, P. Pander, A. Bucinskas, M. Vasylieva, Y. Tian, F. Miomandre, F.B. Dias, G. Clavier, P. Data, P. Audebert, Chem. A Euro. J. 25, 2457–2462 (2018)
R. Tayebee, B. Maleki, J. Iran. Chem. Soc. 14, 1179–1188 (2017)
R. Tayebee, S. Tizabi, Chin. J. Catal. 33, 962–969 (2012)
E. Koushki, B. Maleki, Dyes Pigm. 164, 82–86 (2019)
O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 5th edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2010)
R.W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd edn. (Academic Press Inc, New York, 2007)
P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, J. Thomas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 041116 (2013)
A. Pinner, A. Salomon, B. Gobel, Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 30, 1871–1890 (1897)
D.J. Min, F. Miomandre, P. Audebert, J.E. Kwon, S.Y. Park, ChemSusChem 12, 503–510 (2019)
M. Tutak, A. Disli, A. Alicilar, Asian J. Chem. 21, 6513 (2009)
M. Sheikbahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990)
E. Koushki, A. Farzaneh, S.H. Mousavi, Appl. Phys. B 99, 565–570 (2010)
C.M. Nascimento, M. Alencar, S. Chavez Cerda, M. Da Silva, M.R. Meneghetti, J.M. Hichmann, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 947–951 (2006)
P.N. Prasad, D.J. Williams, Introduction to Non-linear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991)
S.H. Mousavi, E. Koushki, H. Haratizadeh, J. Mol. Liq. 153, 124–128 (2010)
L. Hou, M. Yorulmaz, N.R. Verhart, M. Orrit, Explosive formation and dynamics of vapor nanobubbles around a continuously heated gold nanosphere. New J. Phys. 17, 013050 (2015)
Deep thanks to prof. Pierre Audebert for helpful comments and providing DCT. Partial financial support from the Research Council of Hakim Sabzevari University is greatly appreciated.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Koushki, E., Tayebee, R. & Esmaeili, M. Nonlinear photoacoustic response of s-tetrazine as an important azadiene pigment. Appl. Phys. B 126, 36 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-020-7384-8