Advertisement

Applied Physics B

, 125:7 | Cite as

Novel method to design laser beam shaping lenses using PSO techniques

  • Hua Qin
  • Xin Pang
Article
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

To design beam shaping lenses converting the light from Gaussian intensity distribution into flat-top profile, a new method—particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm—was employed. The theoretical values of ray intersections at the output plane are precisely calculated by the energy conservation when a Gaussian beam is converted to a flat-top one, and these values are then used as target values in the optimization process. Real values of ray intersections are obtained from the ray tracing. The absolute values of the differences between real and theoretical values are used to construct the merit function of a shaping lens system, which are also used as the fitness function values for the PSO. By the manipulation of minimizing the fitness function, refractive two-element beam shapers and a refractive single-element beam shaper have been designed. The analyses for the design results demonstrated the feasibility and validity of the PSO method in the design of laser beam shaping lenses.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the financial support from SDUT & Zibo City Integration Development Project (2017ZBXC021), and Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2017MA051).

References

  1. 1.
    W. Zapka, W. Ziemlich, W.P. Leung, A.C. Tam, Laser cleaning: laser-induced removal of particles from surfaces. Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 2, 63 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. Leone, S. Genna, A. Caggiano, Resource efficient low power laser cleaning of compact discs for material reuse by polycarbonate recovery. CIRP J. Manuf. Sci. Technol. 9, 39 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Penidea, F. Quintero, A. Riveiro, A. Fernández, High contrast laser marking of alumina. Appl. Surf. Sci. 336, 118 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H.-Y. Kim, J.-W. Yoon, W.-S. Choi, K.-R. Kim, Ablation depth control with 40 nm resolution on ITO thin films using a square, flat top beam shaped femtosecond NIR laser. Opt. Lasers Eng. 84, 44 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G.M. Martinov, A.I. Obuhov, L.I. Martinova, A. Grigoriev, An approach to building a specialized CNC system for laser engraving machining. Procedia CIRP 41, 998 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. Shuzhen, Y. Jin, Y. Gang, Z. Fan, Study on the shaped laser beam with linear spot array. Acta Opt. Sin. 34, 33 (2014) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Zhu, M. Sun, M. Zhu, J. Chen, X. Gao, W. Ma, D. Zhang, Three-dimensional shape-controllable focal spot array created by focusing vortex beams modulated by multi-value pure-phase grating. Opt. Express 22, 21354 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Meng, X. Tingwen, Y. Jiahu, Application of micromirror array in beam shaping. Infrared Laser Eng. 43, 1210 (2014) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Zengming, L. Zhuo, Q. Lixun, Aspherical lens laser beam shaping system. Infrared Laser Eng. 41, 353 (2012) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Zhu, X. Zhu, C. Zhu, Analytical approach of laser beam propagation in the hollow polygonal light pipe. Appl. Opt. 52, 5019 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Zexiong, G. Zhu, Y. Huang, X. Zhu, C. Zhu, Analytical model of microlens array system homogenizer. Opt. Laser Technol. 75, 214 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Han, M. Sparkes, W. O’Neil, Controlling the optical fiber output beam profile by focused ion beam machining of a phase hologram on fiber tip. Appl. Opt. 54, 890 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Hasegawa, K. Shiono, Y. Hayasaki, Femtosecond laser processing with a holographic line-shaped beam. Opt. Express 23, 23185 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.M. Maxson, A.C. Bartnik, I.V. Bazarov, Efficient and accurate laser shaping with liquid crystal spatial light modulators. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 171109 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    L.A. Romero, F.M. Dickey, Lossless laser beam shaping. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 751 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B.R. Frieden, Lossless conversion of a plane laser wave to a plane wave of uniform irradiance. Appl. Opt. 4, 1400 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J.L. Kreuzer, Coherent light optical system yielding an output beam of desired intensity distribution at a desired equiphase surface, US Patent 3,476,463 (1969)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P.W. Rhodes, D.L. Shealy, Refractive optical systems for irradiance redistribution of collimated radiation their design and analysis. Appl. Opt. 19, 3545 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.A. Hoffnagle, C.M. Jefferson, Refractive optical system that converts a laser beam to a collimated at-top beam, US Patent 6,295,168 (2001)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.A. Hoffnagle, C.M. Je_erson, Beam shaping with a plano-aspheric lens pair. Opt. Eng. 42, 3090 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.A. McNeil, Design of laser beam shaping Optics—a simple algebraic method, in [Laser Resonators and Beam Control X]. Proc SPIE. (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.763626 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Ma, Z. Liu, P. Jiang, X. Xu, S. Du, Improvement of galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size. Opt. Express 19, 13105 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C.-M. Tsai, Y.-C. Fang, C.-T. Lin, Application of genetic algorithm on optimization of laser beam shaping. Opt. Express 23, 15877 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Fred, Dickey, Laser Beam Shaping: Theory and Techniques, Second Edition (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Neal. L. Evans, D. Shealy, Design of a gradient-index beam shaping system via a genetic algorithm optimization method. Proc. SPIE Laser Beam Shap. 4095, 26 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Kennedy, R.C. Eberhart, Particle swarm optimization. IEEE Int. Conf. Neural Netw. 4, 1942–1948 (1995)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Qin, Aberration correction of a single aspheric lens with particle swarm algorithm. Opt. Commun. 285, 2996 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Santos, G. Borges, A. Santos, M. Silva, A semi-autonomous particle swarm optimizer based on Gradient information and diversity control for global optimization. Appl. Soft Comput. 69, 330–343 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Zhang, P.-C. Chang, S. Song, C. Wu, Local search enhanced multi-objective PSO algorithm for scheduling textile production processes with environmental considerations. Appl. Soft Comput. 61, 447–467 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. Qin, Particle swarm optimization applied to automatic lens design. Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2763 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.J. Yang, Analysis and optimization on single-zone binary flat-top beam shaper. Opt. Eng. 42(11), 3106 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Physics and Optoelectronic EngineeringShandong University of TechnologyZiboChina

Personalised recommendations