Applied Physics B

, 124:130 | Cite as

Informing TiRe-LII assumptions for soot nanostructure and optical properties for estimation of soot primary particle diameter

  • Madhu Singh
  • Joseph P. Abrahamson
  • Randy L. Vander WalEmail author


Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence for primary particle size determination is tested using three model carbon blacks. Optical properties change as does the nanostructure upon laser annealing, whereas aggregate morphology and primary particle size remain equivalent to the original material, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Primary particle diameters found from fitting experimentally measured time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) signals with existing models do not match the particle diameters as directly visualized by TEM. The accommodation coefficient is shown to be a crucial parameter which can result in substantial variations in simulated conductive cooling profiles for particle sizing. Aggregate structure in the form of intra-aggregate connectivity and shielding is an additional underlying cause for erroneous particle sizing, not presently captured by LII models.





Highest occupied molecular orbital


Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital


Laser-induced Incandescence


Near infra-red


Rayleigh–Debye–Gans approximation for fractal aggregates


Transmission electron microscopy


Time–temperature history




Yttrium aluminum garnet

List of symbols


Heat capacity, J/mol K


Primary particle diameter, nm


Optical band gap, eV


Index of refraction function


Planck’s constant, 6.626 × 10−34 m2 kg/s


time, s


Temperature, K

Greek symbols


Thermal accommodation coefficient


pi, 3.1415926


Density, g/cm3


Wavelength, nm


Heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 K


Absorption cross-section


Frequency of incident radiation, Hz



The authors acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation (NSF), Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems (CBET), under Grant number 1236757. TEM was performed using the facilities of the Materials Research Institute at The Pennsylvania State University. Guidance and support on using LIISim and LIISim 3.0 provided by Raphael Mansmann is much appreciated.

Supplementary material

340_2018_6994_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17847 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.John and Willie Leone Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy InstituteThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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