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Effects of milling time on structural, electrical and ferroelectric features of mechanothermally synthesized multi-doped bismuth ferrite

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The Ni- and Ti-modified BiFeO3 nanoceramic (i.e., Bi(Ni0.45Ti0.45Fe0.10)O3) with various effective ball milling times (i.e., 10 h, 20 h and 30 h) were blended by planetary (high energy) ball milling method in conjunction with a traditional solid-state reaction route. The outcome of milling time on various properties, such as structural, electrical and ferroelectric features of Ni/Ti modified BiFeO3, was investigated thoroughly. These properties were interpreted using distinct characterization tools, such as powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, dielectrics and ferroelectric measurements. The particle size of as-synthesized compounds and the intensity of diffraction peaks decline obviously as the milling time rises due to the compression stress, shear friction and other mechanical forces, which are created inside ball mill jars. Investigation of dielectric properties (frequency dependent) displayed the boosted tendency of dielectric constant with increased co-doping concentration. Elaborated analysis of impedance data at selected sets of frequency/temperature estimates the grains influence and boundaries in the capacitive and resistive parameters of the synthesized samples. An elaborated investigation of the impedance spectroscopy spectrum evidently exhibited the size dependence impedance/dielectric relaxation features of the synthesized compounds. The frequency and/temperature dependence of conductivity (alternating current) confirmed the universal power law of Jonscher. The observed ferroelectric hysteresis loop trend reveals that the nanoceramic holds good ferroelectric properties.

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The financial support received from SERB-DST, Government of India, New Delhi, in the form of Research Project No. EMR/2015/002420 to one of the author Alok Shukla is gratefully acknowledged.

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Correspondence to Alok Shukla.

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Kumar, N., Shukla, A., Kumar, N. et al. Effects of milling time on structural, electrical and ferroelectric features of mechanothermally synthesized multi-doped bismuth ferrite. Appl. Phys. A 126, 181 (2020).

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  • Nanoceramics
  • XRD
  • Impedance spectroscopy
  • Ferroelectric