An ultra-wide band low-SAR flexible metasurface-enabled antenna for WBAN applications
- 82 Downloads
In this study, an ultra-wideband low-specific absorption rate (SAR) flexible metasurface-enabled wearable antenna is proposed for wireless body area network applications. The antenna and metamaterial (MM) structure were designed and analyzed using a commercial electromagnetic simulation software program which uses a finite integration technique solver. The antenna is designed and fabricated on a jeans textile substrate in the size of 58 × 80 × 1 mm3. Moreover, MM reflector was designed on a felt textile substrate to reduce the SAR effect of the antenna and to increase the antenna performance (such as impedance matching, radiation pattern, and realized gain) parameters. Designed and fabricated antenna parameters and the SAR value results with and without MM are investigated. The simulated peak SAR values when the antenna with MM is placed on the body model are 0.86, 0.198, and 0.103 W/kg at frequencies of 4 GHz, 7 GHz, and 10 GHz, respectively, for 10 g of tissue. The simulated peak SAR value of the antenna with MM is also reduced by a percentage of 97, compared to the simulated peak SAR value of the antenna without MM. The peak SAR values of the antenna were less than the European safety limit of 2 W/kg for 10 g of tissue when the MM was used as an isolator. Furthermore, the simulated peak realized gain value of the antenna with the MM was increased by 98% (from 4.6 to 9.1 dB) compared to the simulated peak realized gain value of the antenna without MM. Simulation and measurement results showed that performance characteristics and peak SAR values of the proposed antenna were suitable and safe for wearable technologies.
The work described in this paper is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) (Project no: 113E277) and Scientific Research Project Center of Erciyes University (Project no: FYL-2014-5075).
- 9.V. Kumar, B. Gupta, Swastika slot UWB antenna for body-worn application in WBAN, in Medical Information and Communication Technology (ISMICT), 2014 8th International Symposium on, IEEE, 2014, pp. 1–5Google Scholar
- 11.U.F.C. Commission, FCC Revision of Part 15 of the Commission's Rules Regarding Ultra-Wideband Transmission Systems: First Report and Order, technical report, Feb, 2002Google Scholar
- 12.M. Shakhirul, M. Jusoh, A. Ismail, M. Jais, M. Kamarudin, M. Osman, Analysis of circular polarization textile antenna in bending condition, Computer, Communications, and Control Technology (I4CT), 2015 International Conference on, IEEE, 2015, pp. 360–363.Google Scholar
- 14.W.A.M. Al Ashwal, K.N. Ramli, Compact UWB wearable Antenna with İmproved Bandwidth and Low SAR, RF and Microwave Conference (RFM), 2013 IEEE International, IEEE, 2013, pp. 90–94Google Scholar
- 15.A. da Conceicao Andrade, I. P. Fonseca, S. F. Jilani, and A. Alomainy, Reconfigurable textile-based ultra-wideband antenna for wearable applications. In: 2016 10th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP) IEEE, 2016, pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
- 16.M. Koohestani, N. Pires, A.K. Skrivervik, A.A. Moreira, Influence of the human body on a new coplanar-fed ultra-wideband antenna, Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), 2012 6th European Conference on, IEEE, 2012, pp. 316–319.Google Scholar
- 19.Z.H. Jiang, D.H. Werner, Robust low-profile metasurface-enabled wearable antennas for off-body communications, Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2014 8th European Conference on, IEEE, 2014, pp. 21–24.Google Scholar
- 34.F. Wang, T. Arslan, A wearable ultra-wideband monopole antenna with flexible artificial magnetic conductor, in Antennas & propagation conference (LAPC), 2016 Loughborough, IEEE, 2016, pp. 1–5Google Scholar
- 35.S. Shahid, M. Rizwan, M. Abbasi, M. Tarar, S. Abbas, Bend Profiling of textile antenna for body centric wireless communication (pre published copy 2014).Google Scholar
- 36.CST MWS https://www.cst.com/products/cstemcs/solvers Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
- 39.N. Chahat, M. Zhadobov, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi, Improvement of the on-body performance of a dual-band textile antenna using an EBG structure, in Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 2010 Loughborough, IEEE, 2010, pp. 465–468Google Scholar