Applied Physics A

, 124:824 | Cite as

Thin films of nanostructured ZnO used as an electron-transporting material for improved performance of perovskite solar cells

  • Khalid MahmoodEmail author
  • Arshi Khalid
  • Madsar Hameed
  • Faisal Rehman
  • Muhammad Taqi Mehran
  • Rak-Hyun Song
Rapid communication


A low-temperaure hydrothermal method has been used to grow ZnO nanostructures including two distinct morphologies, nanodisks and nanowells as electron-transporting materials (ETMs) for high-efficieny perovskite solar cells. The perovskite solar cells based on ZnO nanowells demonstrate the maximum power conversion efficiency (PCEmax) of 16.65%, compared to ZnO nanodisks and mesoporous film, possibly thanks to better morphology, faster electron transport and complete infiltration of the perovskite absorber into the ZnO nanowells.



The authors thankfully acknowledge the financial support from the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.

Supplementary material

339_2018_2251_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1869 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khalid Mahmood
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arshi Khalid
    • 2
  • Madsar Hameed
    • 1
  • Faisal Rehman
    • 1
  • Muhammad Taqi Mehran
    • 3
  • Rak-Hyun Song
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Polymer EngineeringUniversity of Engineering and Technology LahoreFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Humanities and Basic SciencesUniversity of Engineering and Technology LahoreFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.University of Science and Technology (UST)DaejeonRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.New and Renewable Energy Research DivisionKorea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)DaejeonSouth Korea

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