In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of femtosecond laser-modified Ti6Al4V alloy
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The present work investigates bioactivity and biocompatibility of femtosecond (fs) laser surface-modified Ti6Al4V alloy (Ti-alloy). Self-aligned conical surface features were generated on Ti-alloy when laser irradiated employing a Ti:sapphire pulsed fs laser of wavelength 800 nm. Modification of surface chemical composition resulting from fs-laser irradiation of Ti-alloy was examined using Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) technique and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Sub-oxide phase of titanium was detected on Ti-alloy surface post-fs-laser irradiation leading to increased oxygen vacancies on sample surface. For in vitro bioactivity tests, untreated and fs-laser-treated samples were immersed in simulated body fluid for 2 weeks. Evidence of hydroxyapatite deposition on both untreated Ti-alloy, as well as, fs-laser-treated Ti-alloy surfaces after in vitro tests were provided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), GIXRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Superior growth of HAP was observed on fs-laser-modified Ti-alloy surface in comparison with untreated surface. Biocompatibility of the laser-treated Ti-alloy was investigated by studying anchoring and growth of human osteosarcoma cell line (U2OS) on it. Using MTT assay technique in vitro cell viability and growth potential in the presence of untreated and laser-treated Ti-alloy samples were assessed. MTT test results demonstrated that, neither cell viability, nor growth were affected in the presence of either the untreated or laser-treated sample surfaces. In addition, in comparison with the untreated Ti-alloy surface, the fs-laser-treated Ti-alloy surface showed more efficient cellular attachment when examined under confocal microscope.
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