A comprehensive comparison of transition metal oxide MoO3 and non-transition metal oxide GeO2 in solar cells
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Solution-processed metal oxide materials including transition metal oxide MoO3 and non-transition metal oxide GeO2 have been studied systematically here and they are directly dissolved in the deionized water. Aqueous solution-processed metal oxide material films are proposed utilizing the weak solubility in water. Solution-processed transition metal oxide MoO3 and non-transition metal oxide GeO2-based devices both showed the desired photovoltaic performance. Most importantly, non-transition metal oxide GeO2 was a highly promising interface layer for solar cells. Our results demonstrate the significant role of interfaces in improving the conditions of relaxation time and electron–hole pairs. Such GeO2-based devices exhibit an average energy conversion efficiency of 7.78% (the best is 8.16%), which is even higher than the device with the commonly used MoO3 as hole extraction layer (7.51%). Our results demonstrate the significant role of interfaces in improving the photovoltaic performance.
We acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61701261, 61601249 and 61371057), the Natural Science Foundation of colleges and universities in Jiangsu Province (No. 06030015), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20160417), the Foundation of Nan Tong University (No. 03081016), and the student innovation and entrepreneurship training program of Nan Tong University (Nos. 2018032, 2018041).
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