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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy: clinical outcomes and patterns of failure among subsets of 8th AJCC stage IVa

Abstract

Objectives

The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) merged T4N0–2 and T1–4N3 to create stage IVa. In the present study, we aimed to assess the difference in clinical outcomes and patterns of failure between 8th AJCC T4N0–2 and T1–4N3 NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

Methods

We included 3107 patients with stage IVa NPC disease (1871 with T4N0–2 and 1236 with T1–4N3) according to the 8th AJCC staging system. Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint. The clinical outcomes between T4N0–2 and T1–4N3 patients were compared.

Results

T1–4N3 patients had significantly worse 3-year OS (84.1% vs. 89.2%; p < 0.001) and distant metastasis–free survival (DMFS; 78.3% vs. 85.9%; p < 0.001), but better local relapse–free survival (LRFS; 94.9% vs. 92.2%; p = 0.003), as compared with T4N0–2 patients. Multivariate analysis showed that T1–4N3 was still an independent adverse prognostic factor for both DMFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.517, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.274–1.806, p < 0.001) and OS (HR = 1.315, 95% CI = 1.100–1.572, p = 0.003), whereas T4N0–2 was an independent adverse prognostic factor for LRFS (HR = 1.581, 95% CI = 1.158–2.158, p = 0.004).

Conclusions

In terms of the OS, T4N0–2 patients had better prognosis compared with T1–4N3 patients, and the patterns of failure differed between T4N0–2 and T1–4N3 patients. We believe that future modifications of the AJCC/UICC staging system should separate T4N0–2 from T1–4N3.

Key Points

• In nasopharyngeal carcinoma, T4N0–2 patients tended to develop local relapse, whereas T1–4N3 patients were more likely to develop distant metastasis.

• In terms of overall survival, T4N0–2 patients had better prognosis than T1–4N3 patients.

• T4N0–2 should be separated from T1–4N3 in the UICC/AJCC staging system.

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Abbreviations

18F-FDG:

(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose

AJCC/UICC:

American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control

CI:

Confidence interval

DMFS:

Distant metastasis–free survival

EBV:

Epstein-Barr virus

GTV:

Gross tumor volume

HR:

Hazard ratio

IMRT:

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy

LRFS:

Local relapse–free survival

MRI:

Magnetic resonance imaging

NPC:

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

OS:

Overall survival

PET/CT:

Positron emission tomography CT

RRFS:

Regional relapse–free survival

SPECT:

Single photon emission computed tomography

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Author information

Correspondence to Ling-long Tang.

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Guarantor

The scientific guarantor of this publication is Ling-Long Tang from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statistics and biometry

One of the authors, Ai-Hua Lin, who is from the Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, China), has significant statistical expertise.

Informed consent

Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board.

Ethical approval

Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.

Methodology

• Retrospective

• Diagnostic or prognostic study

• Performed at one institution

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Huang, C., Guo, R., Li, J. et al. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy: clinical outcomes and patterns of failure among subsets of 8th AJCC stage IVa. Eur Radiol 30, 816–822 (2020) doi:10.1007/s00330-019-06500-5

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Keywords

  • Prognosis
  • Treatment failure
  • Stage
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  • Intensity-modulated radiotherapy