Cortical morphology of chronic users of codeine-containing cough syrups: association with sulcal depth, gyrification, and cortical thickness
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The study aimed to explore the effects of codeine-containing cough syrup (CCS) exposure on cortical morphology and the relationship between cortical characteristics and CCS dependence.
Cortical morphometry based on Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12) was used to compare changes in sulcal depth, gyrification, and cortical thickness of the cerebral cortex from 40 CCS users and 40 healthy controls (HCs) with two-sample t tests (p < 0.05, multiple comparison corrected). Relationships between abnormal cortical morphological changes and the duration of CCS use, impulsivity traits, and age of first use were investigated with correlation analysis (p < 0.05, uncorrected).
CCS users exhibited significantly increased sulcal depth in the bilateral insula, bilateral lingual, bilateral superior frontal, right precuneus, and right middle frontal regions; increased gyrification in the right precentral cortex; and increased cortical thickness in the bilateral precentral, bilateral precuneus, and right superior temporal cortices compared to HCs. In addition, we found significant correlations between the bilateral insula, right superior frontal cortex, and right precentral gyrus and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) total scores.
Chronic CCS abuse may be associated with aberrant sulcal depth, gyrification, and cortical thickness. These morphological changes might serve as an underlying neurobiological mechanism of impulsive behavior in the CCS users.
• Cortical morphological changes were detected in CCS users.
• Increased sulcal depth, gyrification, and cortical thickness of some regions were found in the CCS users.
• Positive correlations between cortical morphological changes and BIS total scores were identified.
KeywordsCodeine Cough Cerebral cortex Frontal lobe Impulsive behavior
Barratt Impulsiveness Scale
Computational Anatomy Toolbox
Codeine-containing cough syrup
Middle frontal cortex
Superior frontal cortex
Superior temporal cortex
Total intracranial volume
The authors state that this work has not received any funding.
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Guihua Jiang.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Statistics and biometry
No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper.
Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects (patients) in this study.
Institutional review board approval was obtained.
Study subjects or cohorts overlap
No study subjects or cohorts have been previously reported.
• cross-sectional study
• performed at one institution
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