Changes in quantitative parameters of pulmonary nonsolid nodule induced by lung inflation according to paired inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography imaging
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To evaluate quantitative parameters of nonsolid nodules on paired inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT) and to examine whether these parameters are sensitive to lung inflation reflected by lung volume.
Thirty-three patients with 41 nonsolid nodules were included in this prospective study. Paired inspiratory and low-dose respiratory plain chest CT were performed. The volume and density of nonsolid nodule(s), both lungs, the right and left lung, and five lobes, were analyzed in inspiratory and expiratory CT scans. The ratio of expiratory to inspiratory parameters was calculated and labeled as parameter(E-I)/I. To standardize the changes in nonsolid nodule quantitative parameters, the ratio of nonsolid nodule parameter to lung parameter was also calculated. Quantitative parameters were compared between inspiratory and expiratory CT.
Nonsolid nodule volumes on expiratory CT were reduced by 19.8% ± 12.9%, while the density was increased by 11.4% ± 8.8%. The volume of nonsolid nodules was significantly greater on inspiratory compared with expiratory CT (p < 0.001). The density of nonsolid nodules was significantly greater on expiratory than inspiratory CT (p < 0.001). The volume(E-I)/I was significantly greater than density(E-I)/I both in nonsolid nodules and lung. The volume(E-I)/I and density(E-I)/I of nonsolid nodules were independent of size. The density(E-I)/I of nonsolid nodule was greater in the lower lobe than that in the upper lobe (p = 0.002).
Volume changes in nonsolid nodules were more sensitive than density changes in expiratory phase. The density of lower lobe nodules was more susceptible to respiration. Expiratory scanning is not recommended for quantification of nonsolid nodules and/or follow-up.
• The nonsolid nodule volume on expiratory CT was reduced by 19.8% ± 12.9%.
• The nonsolid nodule density on expiratory CT was increased by 11.4% ± 8.8%.
• The volume (E-I)/I and density (E-I)/I of nonsolid nodules were independent of size.
KeywordsSolitary pulmonary nodule Tomography, x-ray computed Computational biology
Automatic exposure control
Mean lung density
This study has received funding by the National Key R&D Program of China (grant numbers 2016YFE0103000 and 2017YFC1308703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant Numbers 81871321 and 81370035), and the Youth Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 81501618).
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Prof. ShiYuan Liu.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies, whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.
Statistics and biometry
One of the authors has significant statistical expertise.
Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects (patients) in this study.
Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.
• performed at one institution
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