Accuracy of iodine density thresholds for the separation of vertebral bone metastases from healthy-appearing trabecular bone in spectral detector computed tomography
- 84 Downloads
To evaluate quantitative iodine density mapping (IDM) with spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) as a quantitative biomarker for separation of vertebral trabecular bone metastases (BM) from healthy-appearing trabecular bone (HTB).
Materials and methods
IRB-approved retrospective single-center-study of portal venous SDCT datasets acquired between June 2016 and March 2017. Inclusion of 43 consecutive cancer patients with BM and 40 without. Target lesions and non-affected control vertebrae were defined using follow-up imaging, MRI, and/or bone scintigraphy. ID and standard deviation were determined with ROI measures by two readers in (a) bone metastases, (b) HTB of BM patients and controls, and (c) ID of various vessels. Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) of the lumbar spine and age were recorded. Multivariate ROC analyses und Wilcoxon test were used to determine thresholds for separation of BM and HTB. p < 0.05 was considered significant.
ID measurements of 40 target lesions and 83 reference measurements of HTB were acquired. Age (p < 0.0001) and vBMD (p < 0.05) affected ID measurements independently in multivariate models. There were significant differences of ID between metastases (n = 43) and HTB ID (n = 124; mean 5.5 ± 0.9 vs. 3.5 ± 0.9; p < 0.0001), however, with considerable overlap. In univariate analysis, increased ID discriminated bone lesions (AUC 0.90) with a maximum combined specificity/sensitivity of 77.5%/90.7% when applying a threshold of 4.5 mg/ml. Multivariate regression models improved significantly when considering vBMD, the noise of ID, and vertebral venous ID (AUC 0.98).
IDM of SDCT yielded a statistical separation of vertebral bone lesions and HTB. Adjustment for confounders such as age and lumbar vBMD as well as for vertebral venous ID and lesion heterogeneity improved discrimination of trabecular lesions.
• SDCT iodine density mapping provides the possibility for quantitative analysis of iodine uptake in tissue, which allows to differentiate bone lesions from healthy bone marrow.
• Age and vBMD have a significant impact on iodine density measurements.
• Iodine density measured in SDCT yielded highest sensitivity and specificity for the statistical differentiation of vertebral trabecular metastases and healthy trabecular bone using an iodine density threshold of 4.5 mg/ml (most performant)–5.0 mg/ml (optimized for specificity).
KeywordsBone Tomography Iodine Diagnosis Neoplasm metastasis
Bone mineral density
Healthy trabecular bone
Iodine density mapping
Spectral detector computed tomography
Union for International Cancer Control
World Health Organization
The authors state that this work has not received any funding.
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Jan Borggrefe.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare relationships with the following companies: D.M. and J.B. received honorarium from Philips for scientific lectures. The authors have no conflicts of interest.
Statistics and biometry
One of the authors has significant statistical expertise.
Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board.
Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.
• Cross sectional study
• Performed at one institution
- 1.White AP, Kwon BK, Lindskog DM, Friedlaender GE, Grauer JN (2006) Metastatic disease of the spine. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 14:587–598Google Scholar
- 2.Guillevin R, Vallee JN, Lafitte F, Menuel C, Duverneuil NM, Chiras J (2007) Spine metastasis imaging: review of the literature. J Neuroradiol 34:311–321Google Scholar
- 9.Heindel W, Gübitz R, Vieth V, Weckesser M, Schober O, Schäfers M (2014) The diagnostic imaging of bone metastases. Dtsch Arztebl Int 111:741–747. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2014.0741
- 10.Silva AC, Morse BG, Hara AK, Paden RG, Hongo N, Pavlicek W (2011) Dual-energy (spectral) CT: applications in abdominal imaging. Radiographics 31:1031–1046. https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.314105159
- 14.Dong Y, Zheng S, Machida H et al (2015) Differential diagnosis of osteoblastic metastases from bone islands in patients with lung cancer by single-source dual-energy CT: advantages of spectral CT imaging. Eur J Radiol 84:901–907. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2015.01.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Neuhaus V, Abdullayev N, Große Hokamp N et al (2017) Improvement of image quality in unenhanced dual-layer CT of the head using virtual monoenergetic images compared. Invest Radiol 52:470–476. https://doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000367
- 16.Neuhaus V, Große Hokamp N, Abdullayev N et al (2017) Metal artifact reduction by dual-layer computed tomography using virtual monoenergetic images. Eur J Radiol 93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2017.05.013
- 17.Borggrefe J, Kottlors J, Mirza M et al (2017) Differentiation of clot composition using conventional and dual-energy computed tomography. Clin Neuroradiol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00062-017-0599-3
- 20.Dvorak HF, Detmar M, Claffey KP, Nagy JA, van de Water L, Senger DR (1995) Vascular permeability factor/ vascular endothelial growth factor: an important mediator of angiogenesis in malignancy and inflammation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 107:233–235. https://doi.org/10.1159/000236988
- 21.Vaupel P, Kallinowski F, Okunieff P (1989) Blood flow, oxygen and nutrient supply, and metabolic microenvironment of human tumors: a review. Cancer Res 49:6449–6465Google Scholar
- 26.Neuhaus V, Abdullayev N, Hellmich M et al (2016) Association of quality and QUANTITY of bone metastases and computed tomography volumetric bone mineral density with prevalence of vertebral fractures in breast cancer patients. Clin Breast Cancer. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2016.05.010
- 27.Mueller DK, Kutscherenko A, Bartel H, Vlassenbroek A, Ourednicek P, Erckenbrecht J (2011) Phantom-less QCT BMD system as screening tool for osteoporosis without additional radiation. Eur J Radiol 79:375–381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2010.02.008