Percutaneous cryoablation for perivascular hepatocellular carcinoma: Therapeutic efficacy and vascular complications
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To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of and vascular complications associated with percutaneous cryoablation for the treatment of perivascular HCC.
Between August 2015 and September 2017, 58 consecutive patients (48 men, 10 women; mean age, 61.1 years; age range, 44–84 years) who underwent percutaneous cryoablation were included. All patients had a single perivascular HCC (mean size, 1.3 cm; Barcelona clinic liver cancer-stage 0 or A) that was in contact with hepatic vessels, ≥ 3 mm or larger in axial diameter. Local tumour progression (LTP) was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. In addition, several procedure-related vascular complications were evaluated immediately after treatment and during follow-up CT: peritumoral vessel thrombosis; infarction; aggressive intrasegmental recurrence (AIR) (the simultaneous development of ≥ 3 nodular or infiltrative tumours). The follow-up CT was performed in all patients 1 month after the procedure, and every 3 months thereafter.
The median follow-up period was 22 months (range, 3–29 months). The technical success rate of cryoablation was 96.6% (56/58). The 1- and 2-year cumulative LTP rates were 3.6% and 14.6%, respectively. Although peritumoral vessel thrombosis occurred in 6.9% of cases (4/58), no cases of hepatic infarction were observed and AIR did not develop during follow-up. Half of the thombi in the peritumoral vessels immediately after cryoablation disappeared on follow-up CT images.
Cryoablation could be an effective tool for the treatment of perivascular HCC with a very low risk of vascular complications.
• Cryoablation allowed a high technical success rate for perivascular HCC.
• Only 6.9% developed peritumoral vessel thrombosis without major vascular complications like infarction.
• Two-year cumulative LTP rate was 14.6%, without aggressive tumour recurrence on follow-up.
KeywordsLiver Hepatocellular carcinoma Cryoablation Treatment outcome
Barcelona clinic liver cancer-stage
Local tumour progression
The authors state that this work has not received any funding.
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Won Jae Lee.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this paper declare no relationships with any companies whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.
Statistics and biometry
No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper.
Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board.
Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.
• Performed at one institution
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