Characterization of the lipid profile of Antarctic brown seaweeds and their endophytic fungi by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)

  • Thaiz Rodrigues Teixeira
  • Gustavo Souza Santos
  • Izabel Cristina Casanova Turatti
  • Mário Henrique Paziani
  • Márcia Regina von Zeska Kress
  • Pio Colepicolo
  • Hosana Maria DebonsiEmail author
Original Paper


The marine environment supports vast habitats with prodigious biodiversity comprising the largest source of unique bioactive compounds biosynthesized by macro and microorganisms, including seaweeds and their associated fungi. In this context, the interest in studying and characterizing marine natural products has increased in the last years. Among these metabolites, lipids and their derivatives play an important role in the metabolism of marine organisms and are sources of substances with therapeutic properties and biotechnological purposes. In this research, it was investigated the lipid amount present in the algae species Ascoseira mirabilis, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia anceps, Phaeurus antarcticus and in their associated endophytic fungi Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium echinulatum, Microascus croci and Penicillium purpurogenum, respectively. This study was achieved by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, using a standard methodology to analyze all of the components present in the eight organisms. Fatty acids (FAs) and sterols are among the lipids of the highest concentration in the studied algae and fungi. In general, phytol and fucosterol were the most abundant metabolites in all seaweed, while in endophytic fungi, the FAs (palmitic, linoleic, oleic and stearic acid) and ergosterol appeared in major concentrations. This work contributes to new chemical information on the underexploited biodiversity of macroalgae and endophytic fungi belonging to the Antarctic Peninsula and, furthermore, to increase the possibilities for the discovery of bioactive substances and apply it on biotechnological approaches.


Brown seaweed Endophytic fungi Antarctica Fatty acids Sterols GC–MS 



This study had financial and logistic support from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR/MCT/CNPq N° 64/2013) and Brazilian Marine Force. The authors are grateful for the financial and Fellowship Support from the Brazilian research funding agencies Coordination of Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES), National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), National Institute of Science and Technology (INCT: BioNat), Grant # 465637/2014–0, and the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), Grant # 2014/50926–0. The authors are thankful to Renata S. N. Tavares for collection of algae in the Mission XXXIV/2015 and Ludmila Tonani by the support in the identification of fungi. We thank Professor Dr. Norberto Peporine Lopes (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto-USP) for providing available equipment.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thaiz Rodrigues Teixeira
    • 1
  • Gustavo Souza Santos
    • 1
  • Izabel Cristina Casanova Turatti
    • 1
  • Mário Henrique Paziani
    • 2
  • Márcia Regina von Zeska Kress
    • 2
  • Pio Colepicolo
    • 3
  • Hosana Maria Debonsi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão PretoUniversity of São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Analysis, Toxicology and Food Science, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão PretoUniversity of São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, Chemistry InstituteUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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