Polar Biology

, Volume 41, Issue 12, pp 2399–2407 | Cite as

A description of the post-naupliar development of Southern Ocean krill (Thysanoessa macrura)

  • Jake R. WallisEmail author
Original Paper


Southern Ocean krill (Thysanoessa macrura) is one of the most abundant euphausiid species in the Southern Ocean. Despite a wide distribution and high abundance this species remains poorly understood. Unique ecological traits of this species, including a late-winter reproductive period, highly omnivorous diet and large lipid deposits within the carapace, suggest T. macrura is attuned to the seasonal patterns of the Southern Ocean. The absence of the descriptions of T. macrura larval stages limits the development of a comprehensive understanding of the early life-history of this species. Here, I provide the first detailed descriptions of the post-naupliar larval developmental stages of T. macrura with accompanying photographic documentation. Three calyptopis and 6 furcilia stages were identified and described for T. macrura, providing an accessible guide for their identification in both historical samples and for future investigations.


Larvae Ontogenesis Calyptopis Furcilia 



I thank both Dr Kerrie Swadling and Dr So Kawaguchi for the assistance and expertise they provided. This project was supported by AAS Grants 4331, 4344 and 4037. This research was supported by the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Marine and Antarctic StudiesUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  2. 2.Antarctic Climate & Ecosystem Cooperative Research CentreUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

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