Effects of drought–re-watering–drought on the photosynthesis physiology and secondary metabolite production of Bupleurum chinense DC.
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Drastic changes in soil water content can activate the short-term high expression of key enzyme-encoding genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis thereby increasing the content of secondary metabolites.
Bupleurum chinense DC. is a traditional medicinal herb that is famous for its abundant saikosaponins. In the current study, the effects of drought–re-watering–drought on the photosynthesis physiology and biosynthesis of saikosaponins were investigated in 1-year-old B. chinense. The results showed that alterations in soil moisture altered the photosynthesis physiological process of B. chinense. The dry weight and fresh weight of the roots, photosynthesis capacity, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and SOD, POD and CAT activities were significantly reduced, and the contents of SP, soluble sugars, PRO and MDA increased. There were strong correlations between different physiological stress indices. All indices promoted and restricted each other, responded to soil moisture changes synergistically, maintained plant homeostasis and guaranteed normal biological activities. It was found that RW and RD_1 were the key stages of the water-control experiment affecting the expression of saikosaponin-related genes. At these two stages, the expression of multiple genes was affected by changes in soil moisture, with their expression levels reaching several-fold higher than those at the previous stage. We noticed that the expression of saikosaponin synthesis genes (which were rapidly upregulated at the RW and RD_1 stages) did not coincide with the rapid accumulation of saikosaponins (at the RD-2 stage), which were found to correspond to each other at the later stages of the water-control experiment. This finding indicates that there is a time lag between gene expression and the final product synthesis. Rapid changes in the external environment (RW to RD_1) have a short-term promoting effect on gene expression. This study reveals that short-term stress regulation may be an effective way to improve the quality of medicinal materials.
KeywordsBupleurum chinense DC. Drought stress Physiological changes Gene expression Saikosaponins
This work was supported by China Agriculture Research System (Grant number CARS-21).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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