Cardiovascular risk factors’ behavior during the early stages of the disease, in Hispanic rheumatoid arthritis patients: a cohort study

  • Irazú Contreras-Yáñez
  • Guillermo Guaracha-Basáñez
  • Virginia Pascual-RamosEmail author


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients from Latin America present distinctive characteristics relevant when assessing their cardiovascular (CV) risk. The objective was to monitor CV risk factor behavior in the early stages of the disease and to identify predictors of major CV outcomes (MACE). A recent-onset RA cohort was initiated in 2004; data from 185 patients with ≥ 1 year of follow-up were analyzed. Patients underwent prospective assessments of CV risk factors. Incident MACE were confirmed according to standardized definitions. Appropriated statics was used based on the distribution of the variables. At baseline, patients were primarily middle-aged females (87.6%), with active disease (69.7%). Most prevalent CV risk factors were C-reactive-protein > 1 mg/L (90.3%), Castelli ratio > 3 (83.8%), and low–high-density lipoprotein levels (73.5%). The number of patients with an incident CV risk factor after 1 year was higher for a Castelli ratio > 3 (23%), low–high-density lipoprotein serum cholesterol (16.3%), high total serum cholesterol (10.6%), and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (10%). A minority of patients met the age-range criteria for the application of ACC/AHA 2013 criteria and Reynolds Risk Score (45.8% and 34.1%, respectively). Fifteen patients were classified with high-CV risk during the first year of follow-up, according to ACC/AHA 2013 criteria. Until June 2018, the cohort underwent 1358 patient/years follow-up; six patients developed incidental MACE; high-CV risk at baseline failed to predict MACE. Recent-onset RA Hispanic patients present a distinctive pattern and first-year behavior of CV risk factors. During follow-up, few patients developed incidental MACE.


Cardiovascular diseases Risk factors Rheumatoid arthritis 


Author contributions

ICY: she participated in the conception and design of the study; she performed the statistical analysis; she is in charge of databases integrity of the early arthritis clinic; GGB: he participated in the conception and design of the study, he performed patient´s charts evaluations, and he reviewed the manuscript; VPR: she participated in the conception and design of the study, performed patient´s clinical evaluations; performed the statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript; in charge of the early arthritis clinic.


This study was not funded.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

296_2019_4451_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 12 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Immunology and RheumatologyInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador ZubiránMexico CityMexico

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